Communicative teaching of english as a foreign language: an approach haunted by traditional and structural myths

 0  4  293

M A R A LICE

COMMUNICATIVE
FOREIGN
BY

DE

SOUZA

TEACHING

LANGUAGE:

TRADITIONAL

AN

AND

OF

NEVES

ENGLISH

AS

A

APPROACH

HAUNTED

STRUCTURAL

MYTHS

Dissertação
apresentada
ao
Curso
de
Pós-Graduação em Letras da Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, como parte dos
requisitos para a obtenção do grau de
Mestre em Letras - Inglês.
Orientadora;
Profa.
Dra.
Menezes de Oliveira e Paiva

Belo Horizonte
Faculdade de Letras da UFMG
1993

Vera

Lúcia

Dissertação
pelos

seguintes

aprovada

pela

banca

examinadora,

constituída

professores:

^0 • ^

Profa.

Profa.

Dra.

Dra.

VERA LÚCIA MENEZES DE O.
Orientadora - UFMG

ELI ANA AMARANTE DE M.

11

1
Profa.

i\íi

E PAIVA

MENDES - UFMG

!

L

ROSA MARIA NEVES DA SILVA - UFMG

Profa. Dra. Vera Lúcia Andrade
Coordenadora do Curso de Pós-Graduação
em Letras - FALE/UFMG

Faculdade de Letras da UFMG
BeloHorizonte,

de

de

1993

To my mother Iris
To

my

memory

of

my

father

Nivaldo

and

brother Eduardo
To my

brother

Eunice,
To

Edna,

and

sisters Eliane,

Eneida,

Silvana,

the Paynes and Cihaks

Evaldo,

and Luiz

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would
Lima

like

to

Bastos,

interest

express my special

whose

classes

e Paiva,

all

my

assisting

decisions.

friendship and

I

her husband,

Assumpção
I

am

each

want

her

like

for

and

to

her

patient
every

thank

de

firstaroused

my

guidance;

attempt

her,

and

above

encouragement.

Paiva and

her

two

for

her
have

My gratitude

children,

Anna

to

Paula

for their patience with us.

to thank my
special

dearest

help with

friend
the

Lúcia Maria

proof-reading

Rezende

and

a

lot

lucky to have such friend.
colleague Avany

Pazzini Chiaretti,

deepest

and

for

respect

indebtness

her

constant

and generosity

in sharing precious pieces of

Special

to my

thanks

Sylvia

Mancini,

cooperation.

Without

poss ib1e.

supporting

would not

To my friend and

Mara

respecting

all,

This dissertation

personal

José Eduardo

and Carlos Honorato
I would also

for her

delicious meals.

been written without

more.

advice

Herzila Maria

to Professor Vera Lúcia Menezes de Oliveira

thesis advisor,

stumble,
my

sound

to

in this Master's course.

My deepest gratitude

each

and

gratitude

colleagues Helivane
and
them

Raquel
this

Patrus
study

I

express

my

encouragement

information.

de Azevedo Evangelista,
for
would

their
not

invaluable
have

been

My

expression

of

gratitude

invaluable help when

I was

I

cousin

wish

to

thank

my

to

Laura

Stella

taking my first
Sandra

de

Miccoli

Azevedo

My

Wanderley

Doctor

who

has

Borges,

perseverance and self-commitment.

to

her

steps.

taught me so much about
gratitude

for

Ramalho

for

his

special

help

and pa t i ence.
My gratitude
whose

last

also

goes

minute

to

advice

Professor
enabled

Paulo

the

Renan Gomes

final

da

organization

Silva,
of

this

s tudy.
Thanks

are

due

understanding
special

to

Faculdades

and

support

gratitude

to

Regina Célia Carneiro,

I

should

me

in

Nádia

like

different
Alves

Estevão

de

in

Roriz,

de

ways,

and

Oliveira,

Tolentino,

Auxiliadora Bahia.

Newton

me

Paiva

conclude

Auxiliadora

dos

for

my

their

work.

Santos

My

Mafra,

and Ana Maria Vale Leão.

extend my

Cássio

helping

Maria

thanks
in

Luiz

to

all

different

Maria

Portocarrero Naveira,

Fernandes
Ana

to

Prof.

Integradas

Ivone

Dr.

Rosana
Botelho

friends

phases

Beserra

Tarciso

Lucas,

my

and

helped

this

study:

Ramalho,

Fialho,

Adriana

Aguilar,

of

who

Magda

Mancini
my

Lucidio
Velloso
Machado,

analist

Maria

ABSTRACT

This
teachers at
been

study
a

college

perpetuating

practice,

which

learners'

discusses

might

students'

the

L2

questionnaires,

The

results

communicative

techniques,
in

one

results

tests and a classroom

deeply

be

the

the

hypothesis

students

traditional

unsuccessful

cross-checked

adopt

where

the

and
of

major

in

the

structural
the

that

of

teachers'

the

analysis

In

our

the

still

in

causes

their

for

procedure

interviews,
of

have

myths

possible

acquisition.

L2

language

the
we

with

the

materials

and

lesson observation.
show

that

materials

traditional

although
and

there

employ

and structural

learning process.

is
some

an

attempt

to

commun i ca t ive

myths still

interfere

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1
1.1)

Introduction

10

CHAPTER 2
2.1) LANGUAGE TEACHING APPROACHES
2.2) GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION OR TRADITIONAL APPROACH
2.2.1) Theoretical Assumptions, Objectives and
Techniques of the GT Approach
2.2.2) The Assessment System in this Approach
2.3) THE DIRECT APPROACH
2.3.1) Theoretical Assumptions, Objectives, and
Techniques of the DA Approach
2.3.2) The Assessment System in this Approach
2.4) THE STRUCTURAL OR AUDIO-LINGUAL APPROACH
2.4.1) Theoretical Assumptions, Objectives and
Techniques of the AL Approach
2.4.2) The Assessment System in this Approach

15
17
18
19
20
22
23
24
26
29

CHAPTER 3
3.1) THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
•.•••*.
3.1.1) Developing the Concept of Communicative
Competence
3.1.2) Communicative Approach: Principles
3.1.3) The Role Played by Materials in Communicative
Language Instruction
3.1.3.1) Principles
3.1.4) The Role of Testing in the Communicative
Language Instruction

33
38
44
45
47

CHAPTER 4
4.1) DATA ANALYSIS
4.1.1) Introduction
4.1.2) Methodology
4.1.2.1) Description of subjects
4.1.2.2) Procedures
4.1.2.3) Results and Discussion
4.1.2.3.1) Concept of language teaching
4.1.2.3.2) The teacher's method
4.1.3.2.3) The role of the materials in the
teacher's methodology
4.1.3.2.4) Aquaintance with recent trends in
teaching/learning theory
4.1.3.2.5) What makes students learn
4.1.2.3.6) The aimed level of proficiency; is
attainable or is it an illusion?
4.1.2.3.7) Assessment of learning: tests
4.2) CLASSROOM OBSERVATION
4.2.1) Conclusion

59
59
60
60
61
62
62
73
81
98
102
it
113
118
13 1
145

CHAPTER 5
5.1) Conclusion

151

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

158

APPENDIX
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
APPENDIX

162
163
201
227
266
268
286

1 - Transcription Code
2
3
4
5
6
7

A

SCHOOLMISTRESS

"A TREACHER AFFECTS ETERNITY;
HE CAN NEVER TELL WHERE HIS
INFLUENCE STOPS."
(HENRY BROOKS ADAMS)

Mondays, she resumes the endless journey
from home to classroom:
old books filled with pieces of wisdom
a bag of hopes carefully kindled
She draws the world
as a whole new possibility:
the faith in man, love, all
the attainable peace
the unshakable truth

higher values

Young minds thrill
to the echoes of her teachings
as she invites all hearts
to the perfect dream
Her life may fade in the mist of oblivion
though empty rooms
and withered pages
remain as signs of honored ideals

Marco Túlio Barreto
August, 1993

CHAPTER

1.1)

INTRODUCTION
Second

referred

to

recent

or

as

Foreign

L2)

literature

Approach

to

students

L2

to

practice

In
in

aware

of

Approach

a

era

for

L2

graduate
and

theoretical

in

we

their

have

and

and

researchers'

de

articles

published

personal

contacts

Professores

the

in

that

colleges

reports

both

teachers

and

institutions
to

try

to

improving

this

change

in

at

a

project

de

team
of

are

put

into

of

the

the

L2

(1991),
to

such as

among
L2

research

others

Teaching
on

Celani

and

^ Estudos de Lingüística Aplicada
Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP.

to

Inglesa),

curriculum

Aplicada^
who

have

design

and
been

(PSLI)

at

de Minas Gerais.

(1989),

Cavalcanti
studies
in

published

has
by

and

in

Brazil,

methodology
is

according

Língua

da

conducting

teaching and

taken

(Encontro

teachers

Learning

has

ENPULIs

Lingüística

of

L2

Brazil,

the

Universitários
Estudos

with

new

Researchers

too much

Communicative

for

Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Federal

Linguistics

changes;

constructs

search

observed

universities

Nacional

Lopes

the

new

changes

forward

important

emphasized

at

these

many

(hence

learning processes.

many

conducting

as

Teaching

through

greatly

latest

fact,

teachers'

gone

has

these

teaching and

Language

Teachers

be

Communicative

has

teaching

alike.

expected

place

1

Moita

Applied

state

that

already

been

Universidade

11

done.

The

apparent

present

need

enabling

both

understand the process
This

the

attitude

classroom

constructs
into

of

the

and

in

towards

research

learners

investigating

of both

factors

affective

teachers and
of

students'

name

a

few

such

factors,
needs

of

the

become

themselves

as

of

to

process

the

These

rise

take

interaction

strategies,
learning

topics

of

theoretical

constructs

classroom

wants,

possible

the

learners would

some

learning

and

has

learning an L2.

Communicative Approach.

analysis,
but

teachers

application

consideration

management,

classroom

involved

acquisition on the part
from

for

conversation

evaluation,

worth

and

to

investigating

emp i r i ca11y.
The
two

main

results

reasons:
of

teachers'
aware

decision

L2

learning
to

several

picture,

we

teachers

are

might

still

as

be

traditional

or

they

might

be

be

been

for

the

despite

the

we

are

unsatisfactory

the

fact

using teaching

using

where

Alt hough

of

implicitly
strategies of

Celani

grammar

that

constructs

either

as

for

this

cause,

Or

taken

college

theoretical

approaches.

still

a

results.

causes

the

has

unsatisfactory

these

the

at

Therefore,

still

structural

teach

quite

of

Approach.

they might

study

possible

unaware

explicitly,

it,

are

a

this

we

improve

suggest

Communicative

puts

conduct

firstly,

efforts

that

to

as

(op.cit,

the

"cure

our
the
or
the
39)
all

remedy".
Secondly,
inspite
suspect,

of

the

then,

we

have

use

of

that

the

been observing
so-called
adoption

of

unrewarding

very
these

modern
modern

results

in

materials.

We

materials

has

12

been

insufficient
We

teachers
matter

have

thus

still

of

in relation

consider

hypothesis,

no

the

language

grammatical

expected performance.

following

items

or

materials

we believe

that,

if

teachers use

will

also adopt

teaching,

of

authoritarianism
evaluation,

they

to

control

creating

their

a

to

be

they

use.

situation

Unfolding

our

model

traditional

students'

learning

that

a

linguistic

a traditional
the

our

mostly

acquiring

what

language

hypothesis:

instruction

matter

of

and

learners'

formulated

teaching

competence,

to

role

process

students

will

passively accept and reproduce.
We

have

chosen

to

conduct

this

study

by

developing

the

following procedures:
a)

Interviews
members

with

teaching

teachers were
in

Each

were

in

to

analysis.

L2

the

we

The

feel

in

more
of
to

dissertation
it

L2

at

conducted
since

recorded.

enable

a

meant

unnecessary

These

ease,

being

is

faculty

1992.

interviews were

discomfort

found

seven

Department

transcribed

The

in the

views

questionnaire was

the

better

for

to

the

translate

into English.

teachers.

students'

of

teachers

to be answered

factors considered
the

the

this

teacher,

b) Questionnaires

random.

fully

as

the transcriptions

three

Language

facing

was

And,

interviewed

the

make

already

interview

Brazilian

least

chosen at

Portuguese

they

at

students of

questionnaire
interviews,

with

answered

by five

those

in
of

anonymously by

was

based

order to
the

each of
on

the
the

cross-check

teachers'.

the students

The

chosen

13

at

random.

The

students

according to the
c)

Definition

of

were

codified,

however,

in

groups

teacher.

the

points

to

be

investigated

and

subsequent

denomination seven factors':

1) The

teachers'

concept of

language

teaching

2) The

teachers'

methods of

language

teaching

3) The role played by materials
4) The

in

the

teacher's methodology

teacher's acquaintance with the most

recent

trends

in

language teaching/1 earning theories
5) What makes students
6) The aimed
current

level

Class

learning

observation

arriven

of proficiency:

is

it attainable

in

this

context?

7) Assessment of

d)

learn

at

to

through tests

verify

through

the

the

corroboration

analysis

of

of

conclusions

interviews

and

ques t ionnaires.
Accordingly,

we

have

organized

this

dissertation

as

f o 11ows:
In

chapter

major

L2

teaching

still

today,
In

Competence
together

are

2

with

present

approaches

likely to

chapter
and

we

the
their

3

we

and

a

historical

their

outline

testing

influence our teachers'
discuss

development
implications

materials and adequate testing.

the
of
in

concept

the
the

of

systems

the

which,

praxis.

of

Communicative

Communicative
selection

of

Approach
teaching

14

Our

data

is

analysed

in

report.

This

classroom observation
out

'in

three

voices';

the

chapter

4

analysis

teachers',

the

together
is

with

actually

students',

the

carried
and

the

author's .
Our
hypothesis

conclusions
testing

and

are

chart

given

in

quantification.

chapter
Under

5
the

through
prism

our findings we have suggested some alternative solutions.

of

CHAPTER

2.1)

LANGUAGE

In
have

the

been

TEACHING

world of

made

effectively.

APPROACHES

language

to

teach

For more than

these

it

theoretical

derived

from

is

instruction,

a

second

a century

have been formalized to achieve
Presently

a

and

must

their

different

attempts

foreign

language

or

now,

theoretical

constructs

this goal.

constructs,

them,

2

for

L2

teachers

the

effects

contribution

to

understand

which

to

have

current

been

thought

in

L2 teaching.
L2

teachers

approaches,

often

methods,

about

matters

terms

in

and

related

their

hear

daily

to

applied

practice.

them

very

clearly.

clear

each

term

means

theorists

in applied

Stern
who first
technique.
theoretical
"what

He

constitutes

materials

to

implementation

the

referred

axioms

be
to

across

when

talking

linguistics.

However,
It

terms

is

they

according

to

or

They
do

necessary,

such

these

seem

then,

recent

reading

use

not

as

to

to

make

proposals

of

linguistics.

(1983:474)

proposed

come

techniques

distinguish
what

or

or

quoted

Anthony(1963/1965)

distinction between
to

approach

bases

teaching
taught,
induce

of

as

strategies,
their

approach,
"what

language

the

one

method,

and

constitutes

teaching";
i.e.

presentation

learning";

as

and

the
and

the

method

as

selection

of

pedagogical

techniques

as

being

16

"specific

vStratagems

classroom".

It

associated

with

axioms

must

be

more

tricks

noted

than

used

that

one

a

by

the

given

method

teacher

technique

and

one

in

may

method

the

well

may

be

gather

from more than one approach.
Anthony

be

or

based

on

techniques

and

Morris

axioms,

selected

to

(1969:6)

and

it

lead

the

conclude

must

be

student

that

"method

implemented

to

the

must

through

desired

language

behavior as defined by those axioms".
Richards

et

al.

(1985:15)

summarize

the distinction

this

way:
"Different theories about the nature of language
and how
languages
are
learned
(the
approach)
imply different ways of teaching language (the
method),
and
different
methods
make
use
of
different
kinds
of
classroom
activity
(the
t echnique ) ."

Therefore
comprehends
language
of

the

is

the

we

choose

theoretical

learned.

teacher

will

to

in

presentation

principles of

major

better

clarify

study.

The

believed
of

L2

to

some

of

language
of

approaches

the
taken

a

or

'approach'
that

turn,

learning,

including the choice of material
The

call

constructs

'Method',

induce

to

is

that

ascertain

the

the

individual

his/her

way of

which
way

choice

teaching,

and techniques.

historical

outline

teaching approaches
assumptions
into

we

have

consideration
in

the

and

the

basic

is essential
raised
here

in

are

pedagogical

to

this
those

be

of

greater

importance

context

teaching

in

Brazil:

the Grammar-Translation Approach,

the

17

Direct

Approach,

the

Audio-Lingual

Approach,

and

the

Communicative Approach.

2.2)

GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION

The
known

It

"the

translation
technique

into

the

became

traditional

studying

a

with

APPROACH

(from

GT)

popular
As

a

matter

book

and

adaptation was

made

the

with

replacing

texts with exemp1ificatory sentences.
However,
Approach

was

did

teach

not

in

accused

despite
been
other
use,

the

teaching

the
the

since

it

later

developed

into

a

is

still

contributory

strategies.

as a basic practice,

Most

La tin;

rules

18th
an

with

practice
century."

adaptation
a

language

knowledge

use

of

a

to

of
by
the

dictionary.

traditional

the

language

GT

and

classical

{Howatt,1984: I 3 1 ) .

a

many attacks,

mod ified

this

decades of

Grammar-Translation,

Greek

learning

being

Most

oldest

late

of

(Di1 ler,1969:3).
opposed

the final

the

principal

GT was

applying

texts

by

the

of

is

grammar

as

fact,

practice

classical

of

in

of

on

teaching of

language
only

scholastic

of

the

now

combination

target

grammar

interpretation
This

began

regular

(Stern, 1983:453 ) .
the

TRADITIONAL

Grammar-Translation

approach.

however,

OR

lifeless
did

but

and

not

the axioms of

cold

method

how

approaches
must

in

to

strongly

today,

that,
having

conj unction

se1f-teaching

the GT approach.

that
speak

remember

employed

strategy
current

century the GT

teach

we

widely

19th

with

methods

18

2.2.1)

Theoretical

Assumptions,

Techniques

This
justified
reading,

to

oriented.
words.

taught

grammatical

put
It

long

exercises

which

in

into

was

the

an

common

disconnected

the

interaction

teacher

provided

decided

the correct

the

by

the

was

answers.

to

no

language.

mainly

rules

book

isolated
of

the

and

then

these

give

were

of

or

lists of

the

vice-versa.

rules

drills

and

translated

Most

of

from

the

class

language.

teacher-student

what

being

applying

sentences

or

little

explanations

learned

was

activity

target

form of

practice

time was devoted to talking about
The

to

tongue,

together

tongue

paid

elaborate

Students

also

mother

It

in the

and

languages

intelectual

mother

taught

words

deductively.

modern

listening

the

intrincacies .

to

L2

or

in

were

learning

translating.

Vocabulary was

There

learned

and

and

Approach

training,

speaking

were

GT

for

mental

writing,

Classes

the

approach

as

attention

the

of

Objectives

right

was
or

There was

teacher-centered;

wrong

little

and

or no

actually

interaction

s t uden t- student.
The

techniques

used

teachers

read vocabulary

students

wrote

to

passages

read

mother

tongue.

drawn

from

rules,

explanations,

asked

to

do

The

the

a

lists

them down
in

in

the

core

in

of

the classroom were
out

the

L2
a

loud

L2;

and

to

lesson

reading-1rans1 ating
examples

number

of

in

in the

various

the

them

grammar

passage;

Homework

and

were

asked

into

their

explanation

students

their notebooks,

exercises.

following:

mother tongue

students

translate
was

the

copied

then they were

assignments

were

19

grammar
taught

exercises

and

through the study of

2.2.2)

The

Assessment

According
done

vocabulary

through

translate

stating

tests

their

mother

lists

of

demanded

tests.

used.

this

Culture

was

which
to

the

to

Questions

several

verb

about

were

target

words(provi ding
as

assessment

students

rules

well

Vocabulary

Approach

(1986:12),

tongue

vocabulary

cognates)as

often

in

in

g rammar

an t onyms,and
in

System

Larsen-Freeman

Applying

memorization.

literature and history.

written

from

vice-versa.

to

list

memorization

asked

to

language

or

examples

synonyms

conjugati ons

the

foreign
was

was

and

and/or

were

also

culture

were

assessed

through

qu i z zes .
Spolsky
assessment
language

system

to

the

one

by

Van

as a

testing,

characterized
(usually

(in

which

does

these

not

writing

dictation,
(Madsen,

tests within
in

various

open-ended

op.

cit:6).

and

to
tend

to

be

what

traditional

forms

is

use

justify

tester knows

answers
There

in

such

based
also

as

on

knowledge and metalinguistic descriptions.

GT

approach

to

It

the

his/her
regarded

they are.

is

tester

criteria
as
The

being
most

approach consist
translation,

reading

massive

the

today.

authoritarianism:

have

the

classified

traditional

still

criteria

subjective because only the

abundant

a 1 . , 1984: 3 24 )

is

subjectivity

and

frequently used

et

pre-scientific or

one

person)

testees

Els

of

essays,

comprehension.

testing

of

grammar

20
2.3)

THE

DIRECT

The use
as old

as

the way

APPROACH

of

the Direct

the GT Approach

Michel

cle

to

Montaigne

Approach

(from

teaching

languages.

learned

Latin

now on

in

Montaigne

(France),

like many other children

afford

to

have

educated

like a

native speaker.

described
Children
become

his

them

fluent.

attempts

were

in

to

was

it

called

Method,

Psycho 1ogicaI

call

it

the
of

he

the

the

about

example

16th

century.

whose parents

taught

to

(1984:193),
the

did

admitt

late

Latin

Montaigne

Education

19th

teaching

could

speak

on

not

of

having

century

more

is

that

effective;

and

coined

Method,

describe

Method

Movement(Howa11,1984: 169).

or

the

with

Phonetic

various

Direct

names

such

Method,

features

Approach

as

but

of

we

the

prefer

as
the
new
to

here.
The

target

developed

persisted to
Direct

in

Reform

Natural

was

although

the

were

approach

Essay

One

is

change from GT to DA.

methods

that

was

language

Various

label

the

was

make

thus causing a radical
It

in

1580),

However,
made

home,

According to Howatt

experiences

(published

at

DA)

DA

is

language

classroom.

characterized,

as
The

a

means

use

of

of

above

all,

instruction

the

first

by

and

language

the

use

of

communication
and

the

the
in

technique

translation are avoided.
The

Emile

de

reformers,

names

Sauzé,

Henry

Palmer and

of the DA as
approach.

mostly

well,

Howatt

associated

Sweet,

Sauver,

Jespersen,

but,

with

are

the

Gouin,

said to

asserts

that

and

were

Victor,

Berlitz.

have been

actually they were not

(1984:204)

DA

advocates

proponents of
both

The

Sauver

the
and

21

Berlitz,

as

immigrants

in America

for

the

responsible
not

making

concentrate

what

was

making

the

actually

it

wanted."

the

in

founder

of

classroom

and

use

language

classroom
Berlitz,

teaching
it

the

was

useless

of

the

phoneticians
DA

Jespersen

as

were,

did

but

"on

responsible

for

at

the

in Denmark,

in full.

The

teacher
the

total

pedagogy

is
the

both

principal

teachers
in

in

favor

France,

in England.

in full

up

to

the

present

language teachers.

demanded

extremely

explanation and communication

fact

with

Several

Passy

in
like

because

it with other approaches

avoidance

The

linked

language

for

phonetics

others,

method.

Germany,

persisted

was

Phonetics

phonetics

for

closely

time,

challenge to

it

of

language.

in

approach.

applied

use

language

Victor

DA applied

once

is

spoken
same

has

and

conversational

and Sweet

DA

the

the

transcriptions

intensive;

DA

give

(International

many,
be

to

scientific

descriptive

into

the

principles:

the

phonetic

the

much easier to compromise

practice

were

approach

teaching

was

a

the

a

of

of

has been a difficult

the

this

flourished

IPA

For

Phonetics
use

Though

it

19th century,

of

Berlitz

the

should

development

emphasize

the

school

teaching

publicized

teaching.

introduction

of

late

because

phonetics

language

simplified

that

Then

of

Association)

for

happen,

traditional

development

Movement

Passy,

the

popular.

The
Reform

on

DA

in

of

too

It

has

than to

to
as

in the L2 classroom.

a

it

been
apply

much effort

difficult

translation

time,

from

attain

in

means

of

22

2.3.1)

Theoretical
Techniques

of

It

DA

was

the

scientific

approach.

analogous

to

processes

involved

associated

should

be

synonyms,

the strain over

the

Teachers
the

answering

be

were

memorize

to

learning

terms

of

sentences

an
were

was

object

of

early

the

target

think

in

difficult

language
or

as

language

the

learn

target

in

a

with

be

expressions
the

context.

to

help

of

That

explains

supposed

though

pronunciation

should

and

was

be

about

accuracy

should

composition.
the given

grammatical

be

purpose,

worked
asking

practiced

transpositions,

free

the

the

much

extensively

derived from

discover

to worry

on
and

together

substitutions,

Grammar

text.

should

Students

principle

be

should

involved

by

Translation was banned.

Writing
developed

be

viewed

the

and

and

Therefore,

involving

inductively,

themselves.

the

and

sounds

demonstration,

narrative,

to

should

communication

exercises

encouraged

should

not

questions

dictation,
taught

As

is,

was

for

teacher.

beginning

intensively.

with

in

and

search

languages

function,

possible.

explained

paraphrases,

from

as

of

the

interpreted

that

and

about

acquisition,

often

students

soon

brought

Ianguage
were

Objectives,

Approach

learning

language

and

as

that

meaning

Everyday

language

DA

psychology,

with

instruction,

the

The

first

associationist

used.

Assumptions,

from
the

should
the

words.

situations or topics,

also

be

beginning

of

The

syllabus

an

important

instruction
was

not usually on

to

be

to

skill
help

developed

to

be

students
based

linguistic structures.

on

Interaction
student-student
burden

of

teacher-student

conversation

keeping

inventiveness

and

as

went

well.

both

ways

with

Nevertheless,

the

class

'alive'

lay

ease

at

developing

over

new

some

the

the

heavy

teacher's

non-translational

techniques.
Another
early

drawback

fossi1ization^

reason

why

2.3.2)

The

tests

had

to
far

higher

System

and

By

little

do with an overseas

questions
English.

bearing

this

may

have

seldom

led

to

been

the

achieved

by

criticized

marked

Approach

the

this

student.

in

to

examiner

relation

By "subjective" he

the

By

a

whatsoever

meant

that

Approach,
unreal,

confused

Strevens
style

manner."

exemplified

which

had very

"mysterious

views

knew of.

Direct

mysterious,

particular writer's

according

no

in

"inappropriate"

related

examiner which only

was

"inappropriate,

unstructured,

phrased

levels

been

to a

correction

which

who

questions

questions

of

those

(Strevens,1965:89 , 90 )

to

lack

through this method.

Assessment

so

subjective,

in

learned

According

that

{Omaggio,1986:59),

proficiency

the students who

was

of
By

to

one

he meant
individual

"unreal
any

he

actual

many questions

meant

use

had a

of

wide

^ The phenomenon called fossi1ization was coined by Selinker
(1972)
and
has
been
summarized as
such by Richards et
al.
(1985:111): "a process which sometimes occurs in which incorrect
linguistic features become a permanent part of the way a person
speaks
or
writes
a
language.
Aspects
of
pronunciation,
vocabulary usage, and grammar may become fixed or fossilized in
second or foreign language learning."

24

range
in

of

possible

or

the devising and
That

nature

were

by another
item

in

to
in a

grader.

considered

the

belonged
the

called

differently
procedure

question
tests

was

the

to

be

theory of

in

"confused

mistakes of

both

did

not

than

reflect

tested.

manner

more

grader

"unstructured"

than

one

they were

clearly

Finally,

because

in

what

Strevens

they

did

not

language.
here,

pre-scientific

approach

a

by one

being

learning assessment

to

GT

he

single question,

That

reflect any coherent
L2

what

considered

the

Subjectivity occured

in the grading of questions.

led

marking" because

correct answers.

in Spolsky's

stage,

items

although

that

point of

it

view,

differed

required

from

metalinguistic

descriptions or translations.

2.4)

THE

STRUCTURAL

The
AL)

Structural

originated mainly

thoughout

resulted

behaviourist

or
in

from

learning

is

a

put

practice

in

the

Program

Audio-Lingual

America,

intensive

which

process

courses

the soldiers going to war.

1940s
at

APPROACH

Approach

though

the marriage

psychology

language
into

AUDI O-LINGUAL

the world creating firm roots

It
and

OR

it

spread

in Brazil
of

led

to

in

the

Army

Defense

on

as well.

the

conditioning.

now

considerably

structural

of

the

(from

linguistics
theory

This

that

theory was

Specialized Training

Language

Institute

for

25

This
in

same

the

USA

the

the

National

50s

and

Defense

methodology.
Osgood's

methodology dominated
60s.

Education

Bloomfield's

behavioristic

the new AL

to

Stern

identified

most

distinct

period

1 959

to

1966.

In

In

the

approach.

of

fifties

another

from

a

Langer,

by

called

(cf.

By
theoretical

criticism,

Study

the

Audio-Lingual

and

Skinner

and

support

for

it

distinct

fifties"^.
only

was

in

AL

method

Actually AL' s

lasted
the

from

late

about

60s

that

to

Stern:463)

Audio-Lingual

term

as

for

it:

"Philosophy



a

and

New

the "Audio-Lingual

(Smith,1970)

called

Audio-Oral

proposed

"New Key",
in

the

it

he,
a

a

more

himself,

term derived

Key".

In

1966,

Habit Theory"
"Functional

and

Skills

Stern:463)

1970
and
that
in

late

referred

in



the approach

Pensylvania

on

in

"a

influence

was

(1964:263

popularized

caught

to

according

in our schools.

alternative

work

the

however,

it

also

time,

trained

scientific

(op.cit:463)

major

Brazil,

Brooks

pronouceable

that

in

school

furnished

until

the AL started catching on

Strategy"

(NDEA)

structural

school

can hardly be

the

Act

were

academic programs

theory.

According

Carroll

Teachers

the

this

pragmatic
the

was

grounds,

Audio-Lingual

other

AL's

approach

parts

goal

of

of

severely

although

thought

the

bringing

world.

it

criticized
was

exactly

and classroom
In

spite

"objectivity"

of
to

on
at

practice
all

the

language

teaching and testing has been responsible

for

its continuation.

^ Stern as many other
than an approach.

the

AL

linguists

consider

a method

rather

26

2.4.1)

Theoretical

Assumptions,

Techniques

Studies
led

to

the

stimulus

stages.

The

B)

Language

an

primarily

reading

order':

listening,
is

which

ever

spoken,

descriptive
learning

operant
on

the

habit

linguistics.

occured

in

terms

conditioning,

and

successful

error-free

AL approach derived

oral

occurs.

and

conditioned

steps

from

these

and

then,

it

is

over learning

pattern

until

learned

a

'natural

are

aquired

of

drills

the

is

and writing.

therefore

responses

expressions

is,

reading,

the

and

phenomenon

There

formation,

memorization

spontaneous

an

speaking,

patterns

Dialogue

of

were strictly

thought:

before

reccuring

that

emphasis

premisses

is

Language

claimed

which
or

response,

with

and

Approach

structural,

and

two schools of
A)

of

AL

languages,

psychology

reinforcement
and

the

Indian

school

Behavioristic
of

of

of

Objectives

its

are

patterns.

the

means

achieved,

more

through

by

delaying

advanced

levels

of

inst ruct ion.
C) The

language

about

it.

attention
tongue
is

itself

Students
to

how

should

what

should

native

should

the

not

be

be

taught

learn

language
used

speakers

in

to

is

the

say,

and
speak

put

information

without

together.

classroom

not

not

what

The

because

someone

paying
mother
language

thinks

they

should say.
D)

Languages

are

different.

contrastive

analysis

to

Structural

select

those

would be particularly troublesome
E) The

teacher

was

was

responsible

The

students'

stimulus.

the

leader

of

for maintaining
role

Every

was

mainly

Audio-Lingual

with three principal

parts:

features

for the

all

and

respond

textbook

of

the

used
L2

that

learner.

classroom

attention
to

linguists

to

activities
a

lively
the

comprised

and

pace.

teacher's
chapters

27

a)

the dialogue

b)

pattern drills

c)

application activities

The

way

those

following classroom
sentences

for

the

rows and pairs,
been

chapters

techniques:

class

and

thoroughly

to

finally

usually

Transformation

the

in the same

elaborated

teacher

in

elicited

modeled the

chorus,

in

all

Then

moved

the

teacher

drills

the

included

All

modeled,

the
from

lines

in
had

to

used

the

in

the

changes

in

drilling

was

minimal

manipulations.

then

on

that were

the

dialogue

groups,

individually until

way the dialogue was

the group

to

individua1.
Application

adaptations,

with

laboratory

insisted

activities

open-ended

presentations
and

the

transformation drills)

using structures

vocabulary or morphological
done

were

repeat

practiced.

pattern drilling,
dialogue.

(repetition drills,

on

response

memorized

sessions.
absolute

included

correct

things

drills,

material

Throughout

such

for

an

as

guided

personal

entire

forms.

dialogue

expressions

lesson,

This

oral

teachers

led

to

good

pronunciation and accurate speech.
Another
colloquial,
dialogues.
and

positive

aspect

of

socio-1inguistica11y
This

considered

some measure

approach
dialogues

with

the

also
that

community was

taught.

AL

appropriate

stressed
would

everyday

That's how cultural values,

the

was

the

language

use

of

in

the

the

teaching

of

culture

prepare

students

to

deal

situations

geography and

in

the

L2

in

community.

even history of

the

L2

28

One
larger

great

group of

classroom

feat of
learners,

practice

the

students.

and

oral

The

that

theory.

A

as

as

it

did

well

language

great

AL was

in

to

demand

as

the

people

L2

simple

learning

reasoning

techniques

development

of

the strong

learned and

to

techniques

abstract

designed

skills were

number of

extend

developed

not

specifically

practice,

separation of

the

of

a

a

for
from

auditory

pedagogical

pillars of

learned

well

this
using

the AL approach.
However,
were

frequently

many

bored and

meaningfu1ness and
effects.

than

the

both

in

an

teachers

explanations
approach
variety
seeing

of
the

approach.

patterns

actual

on

language
These

of

they

dialogues

found

the

they
often

time-consuming.

learning

styles.

others

options

were

by

knew

not

their

to

make

little

of

that

ti:is

for
better

through

considered

put

grammar

finally,

learned

else

to
was

account

learning
not

lost

drawback

And,

Some

therefore

failed

avoidance

did

teachers

tended

Another

stimulus-response

first,

the

besides,

and

repetition,

accuracy

conversation.

and

students

intense

which

and ' students

students'

explanations.

both

on

of communicating;

frustating

based

tired by

insistence

memorized

together

that

contextualization

Teachers'

learners afraid

claimed

the
by

grammar
by

this

29
2.4.2)

The

Assessment

The

resulted

learner's

achievements.

Carrol,

achievement
grammar,

in

this

Approach

in

and

consisted

time.

1950s

and

went

their

objectivity,

each question

This

on

on

also

type

into

the

that

the

measured,

It

were
on

they

one

were

given

measures

only

popular

acceptance

point

AL

by
of

pronunciation,

measuring

easily

the

measuring

name

became

gaining

focused

(a

language;

testing

they

what

of

of

for

separate

proposed

1960s,

is,

test

then,

of

tests

of

the elements

vocabulary.

a

tests

Discrete-point

terms of

at

orientation

discrete-point

1972:370)

skill

tests

in

behavioristic-structura 1 istic

approach

John

System

in

because

validated
at

supposed

one

a

time.

the
of

since
These

to

measure

and

be

standardized

nothing else.
Multiple-choice
and

used

in

a

large

tests

scale

were

because

learner's mastery of discrete
The

objective

tests'

scientific

reliability.

advantages

of

the

transformational
they

can

be

testing of a
The
tests

in

type

measurement

As

Finochiaro

of

tests

'easily'

'wider area'
'golden

of

It

was

tests,

the

US

Tests such as

by

the TOEFL

and

clearly
features

was

portrayed
of a

(1974:128)

completion,
that

"they

for

posed,

substitution
are

the

language.

responsible

'quickly';

the

language

(Savignon,1983;242).
supported

were

to

the
the
or

'objective';

they

permit

the

of knowledge".

age'

foreign

they

structural

multiple-choice,

scored

the

developed

development
field

during
Office

(Test of

was

this
of

of

in

time

the
that

Education,

English as

standardized
early

proficiency

were

a Foreign

60s

devised.

Language),

30

developed

at

lhat

comprehension,

the

&

or

L2

taker

test

not

to

vocabulary.

The

matching,

true-false,

evaluator

looked

persistence

language

of

test
into

but

reading

Reading
reflected
such

item

to

to

a
the

select

restricted

as

in

required

rather,

for

from

responses
of
the

the

single

these

and

carried

assessing
items

fi11 -in-the-b I ank.
alternatives

nature

of

distinct

tests

years.

are

the

of
The

provided

context.

linguistic

has

accounted

Today many
and

still

True

is

pieces;

False

widely

criticized
a

items

&

easy to devise and

elaboration

at

The

features

straightforwardly.

choice,

answers)

aimed

always

among

and considered

multiple

bits

whether

proficiency,

restricted

testing because they are
theory

then,

instance,

was

formats,

selected

throughout

restricted

and

sub-skills

A

multiple-choice,

objectivity

in- t he-b I anks ,
with

or

the

grading the correct
The

test

either

from

meaning,

Listening

therefore hindering discourse.

achievement

deducted

tests,

for

focus

parts:

Expression,

separated

nature,

context

classroom

or

three

distinctions.

that

Discrete-point

were

but

interpret

sentences or words

responses

Written

skills,

of

of

Standardized

grammatical

standardized
test

&

Vocabulary.

integrated

vocabulary

consisted

Structure

comprehension
not

lime,

bias

for

their

such as

fill-

(among

used

in

others

classroom

grade.

However,

for

splitting

that

makes

this

this
the
so

acclaimed validity questionable.
"Whether there exists a separable (and separably
testable)
component of
vocabulary,
another of
grammar,
and
separable
skills of
listening,
reading,
writing,
and
so
forth
must
be

31
determined
19 7 9:178)
Oiler
language

for

"elements

meant
the

of

that

sake of

language

whole,

attempt

as

it

to

happens

Communicative Approach.
because

it

serves

as

an

this

empirical

basis.

are

normaly

used

in

the

of

the

fact

that

discourse

for

the

(idem:228)

bring

the

in

real

We

will

the

(01 ler,J.

compartimenta 1ization

objectivenass disregarded

purpose of communication."
An

on

basis

bits

and

language,
explain
for

it

our

pieces
became
in

known

a separate

analysis,

deeply affected L2 teaching methodologies all

back

over

once

into
as

a
the

chapter
it

the world.

has

CHAPTER
3.1)

THE

COMMUNICATIVE

Since
has

gained

into

the

early

strength

language

discourse

with

analysis,

Therefore,

the

competence

key

has,

APPROACH

70's

teaching,

a

its

and
concept

since

language

the

L2

language

formal

Communicative

Psychology
these

and

and

fields

forth

was

Chomsky

concept was

not

concerned
all

overt

native

wanted
so

theory,

communication.
or

communicative
importance

to

far

bring

After

break

all,

away

advocated

in

by

from
all

with

the

the

speakers

errors,

the

Cognitive

Transformationa1-Generative

Grammar.

roots

not

involved

the

in

formation

of

focus

language

underlying
(competence)

of

this

of

language
approach

pei-formance

study,

though

teaching theory.

being

which

is

affected

shift

of

attention

by

for
use.
as

a

Psycho 1inguistics,

grammatical
as

to account

actual

competence and

primary
for

in

suffice

Socio 1inguistics,

concept

elaborated

manifestation

distraction,

to

theory:
The

to

of

pedagogy.

Approach gained

aspects

contributed

and Anthropology.

was

speech act

primary

language

of thought did

cultural

teaching-1 earning

by

of

Chomsky's

two currents

the social
Other

aspects

teaching

to

teaching approaches.

The

But

area of

from

communication
gained

practice,

attempt

etnography

then,

theorists

classroom

that

derived

of

and

purely

ecletic

proponents

the

linguistics

the

more

insights

educational
in

3

memory

etc.

this

Chomsky

knowledge
distinct

set

common

from

its

limitation,

(performance).

A

33

conflict arose
the
were

degrees

among Chomsky's

of

those

own followers

grammatica1ity

who

became

more

and

who disagreed

acceptance.

concerned

with

Meanwhile

meaning,

about
there

which

had

been forgotten by the transformationa1-generative grammarians.

3.1.1)

Developing

the

Concept

of

Communicative

Compe t ence

The
took


issue
which

anthropologist

and

with

formulation

focused

abstraction.

Therefore,

on

Dell

performance

language

Chomsky's


he

the

Hymes

the

as

an

"real

general

1983:12).

theory

He

of

devised

on

part

of

integrate

model

was

linguistic

the

to

"a

of

summarized as such by Canale and Swain

in

one

who

competence

language

include

a

communication
a

of

Hymes

speaker-1istener,

competence

to

Dell

speaker-1istener"

integral

competence. Hymes meant
more

"ideal

focused

redefined

use,

linguist

a
in

mere
actual

interact ion.

performance,

or

theory of

communicative

linguistic

theory with a

and

culture."

communicative

(Savignon,
competence

(1980:16):

"the integration of grammatica1(what is formally
possible), psycholinguistic(what is feasible in
terms
of
human
information
processing),
sociocu11ura 1
(what
is
the
social meaning or
value of a given utterance), and probabilistic
(what actually occurs) systems of competence."

Therefore,
use the

one

is

language

communicatively
s/he

knows,

related to the parameters

and

competent
this

if

s/he

communicative

in the above quotation.

is

able

to

behavior

is

The
of

the

work

functions

competence,term
He

of

was

of

of

linguist,

language

first

concerned

context

another

used

with

situation

context
is

purpose

"function

of

an

utterance

form an utterance
is

said

as

Such are
to

report,

of

a

1970,

to

the

adds

"concerned
which
from

purposes

the

I'ules

the

(cf.

variety

forms

They

Savignon:14)

skills,

has

said."
to

on

its

the

units

in

that

do with

to

the

many

subtle

ways

of

function

situation.

and Searle

because
and

in

the

a

refusing

communicative

ways
form

to

an

in
is
in
but

speech
use

functions

interest,
the

it

given

learns

social

distinguishes

what

describe,

the

grammatical

prevail

the

grammatical

of

1962

speech

from

put,

(cf.Savignon:13).

concept

of

not

as

to

context

perform

use,

the

functions

is

Understanding

speaker

from

the

command,

The

(1978:144)

Firth.

Through

particular

showing disagreement or

Widdowson

goes on saying.

is

use;

to

meaning

and

language

by Austin

interpretation

to

understand

the

etc.

depends

functional

develop

making a request,

linguistic

agree

communicative

situation.

which

than

theory,

their

of

community."

language.

to

notion

structure.
to

language

of

the

(1923,1935)

language function

contribution

derive

of

of

Speech Act

with

they

A

utterance

its

use

to

how something

request,

particular

Therefore

to

the

rather

takes.

opposed

the

is

adds

theory

of

able

served by a particular grammatical
So,

the

by Malinowski

the

one

to

Halliday,

a
of

invitation,
for example.

term

usage,

abilities,

as
and

"What the learner needs to know how to do is to
compose in the act of wr i t i ng, comprehend in the
act
of
reading,and
to
learn
techniques
of
reading by writing and techniques of writing by
reading.
( )
The
teaching
of
language
as
communication calls for an approach which brings
linguistic
skills
and
communicative
abilities
into
close
association
with
each
other
to
develop the underlying interpreting ability."
Another
competence

is

communication.
a

static

between

point
the

sustaint

notion

Communicative

concept
two

that

or

that

more

of

the

concept of

the

negot iat ive

competence

depends

persons

on

who

communicative

is a

the

dynamic rather

negotiation

share

nature

some

of

of
than

meaning

knowledge

of

the

1anguage.
Methodo1ogists
terms

that

attempt

and meaning,
compiled as

have

found

to describe

language form and
such

the

various

pairs

of

contrastive

distinction between

language

function,

which

structure
Savignon

(p.33):

LANGUAGE FORM

LANGUAGE FUNCTION

linguistic competence

communicative competence

grammatical

communicative competence

competence

language usage

language use

structure

creativity

linguistic skills

communicative abilities

knowledge

ability for use

skill-getting

skill-using

mechanical

communication

skills

accuracy

fluency

language practice

language use

how something

what

is said

is said

36

In

Canada,

communicative
develop

a

approaches

theoretical

evaluation

in

competence,
minimum

L2

situation
social

theories

integrative.

model

later

work of Widdowson,
comprises
Writing

all

discourse competence,
Grammatical

It

includes

spelling,
levels
are

to

of

not

either on
in

a

between

They

(1983:6-14)

Speaking,

the

second

consider

1980:19).

major

and

communicative

these

came

based

Hymes and Munby.

four

to

on

This

up
the

model

Reading,

and

components:

(1)

competence,

(3)

strategic competence.
is
has

linguistic
mastered

vocabulary,

formation,

competence

Canale

order
design

cope

socio1inguistic

user

of

did

Listening,

competence

knowledge

that

to

of

interrelation

Swain,

& Wales,

(2)

and

accuracy

of

the

rules

sentence

competence,

of

i.e.,

linguistic

code.

pronunciation

structure.

understanding

and

In

and

higher

expression

important goals.
Socialinguist ic

the social
the

by

the
they

with

the

curriculum

needed

on

&



(4)

which

word

skills

(Canale

skills

for

survey

in

"focused mainly

context..."

competence,

degree

then,

a

teaching

Believing

or

integrated

grammatical

the

until

Campbell

conducted

language

modified

four



Swain

framework

(...)

and

a

to

communication

language

with

and

programs.

as defined

(oral)

language

Canale

context

participants

the attitude
register.

competence

in which
and

conveyed

Judgement

say in a situation,

language

setting
by

of

the

requires
is

determine
speaker

and

appropriateness

how to say

an

used,

understanding
i.e.,

role

of

the

appropriateness

of

his

choice

style

or

wha t

to

invo1ve

the

of

of

knowing

it or even when to remain silent.

37

Discourse
and

competence

cohesion discussed

to

combine

thought.

ideas

That

sentences

or

to

Strategic

a

on

the

language

the

use

be
of

native

verbal

and

breakdown
the

other

competent

in

or

is

no

register

of

other

the

model,

becomes,

series

of

whole

and

the

the

component

mimics,
style)

the

involves

strategies

compensate

the

reasons.

of

paraphrasing,

to

of

less

model,

speaker/1istener

this

knowledge

for

of

communication

or

in

to a given context.

ideal

So,

ability

coherence
a

component

guessing,

communication

individual

final

not.

user's

components
an

the

the

and

interpret

coherence

form a meaningful

non-verbal

of

language

form

to

to

there

hesitation,

the

in

of

involves

that are relevant

that

shifts

concept

(1978)

ability

competence,

fact

circumlocution,
in

texts

the

cohesion

in order

they

(repetition,

gaps

the

utterances

on

Widdowson

achieve

means,

to achieve coherent

is based

by

based

code

for

or

for

Contrariwise

more
s/he

to

communicative
has

to

draw

on

strategic competence.
In
term

order

to

clarify

communicative

several

competence,

specifically

competence-performance distiction,
communicative
underlying
and

skill.

model

of

competence'

knowledge

about

Therefore,
communicative

all

in

confusions

Canale

his

four

that

refered

together

applicable

to

L2

by

the

Chomsky's

communicative

components

competence

design and classroom practice.

and

with

stressed

opinion,

language,

aroused

the

term

to

both

language

suggested

a

Curriculum

38
3.1.2)

Communicative
The

Canale
A)

Approach:

principle.s

(1983:17)

are

for

the

competence

integration

of

modes,

as

he

writing

areas:

four

redefines)

within

the

areas


the

socio 1inguistic

Communicative

Aproach

devised

by

following:

Coverage of

the

a

Principles

goal

of

of

competence,

to

facilitate

knowledge

listening,

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