UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE ALAGOAS INSTITUTO DE COMPUTAÇÃO PROGRAMA DE PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM INFORMÁTICA

  

❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ❆▲❆●❖❆❙

■◆❙❚■❚❯❚❖ ❉❊ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖

P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙ ●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖

❊▼ ■◆❋❖❘▼➪❚■❈❆

  

●■▲❚❖◆ ❏❖❙➱ ❋❊❘❘❊■❘❆ ❉❆ ❙■▲❱❆

❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ❉❊ ▼❖◆■❚❖❘❆▼❊◆❚❖

▼Ó❱❊▲ ❉❊ ❙■◆❆■❙ ❈❆❘❉❮❆❈❖❙ P❆❘❆

  

❯❙❖ ❊▼ ❆❙❙■❙❚✃◆❈■❆ ❉❖▼■❈■▲■❆❘

▼❛❝❡✐ó

✷✵✶✺

  

●✐❧t♦♥ ❏♦sé ❋❡rr❡✐r❛ ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛

❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ❉❊ ▼❖◆■❚❖❘❆▼❊◆❚❖ ▼Ó❱❊▲ ❉❊

❙■◆❆■❙ ❈❆❘❉❮❆❈❖❙ P❆❘❆ ❯❙❖ ❊▼ ❆❙❙■❙❚✃◆❈■❆

  

❉❖▼■❈■▲■❆❘

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r✲ ❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳

  ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▲❡❛♥❞r♦ ❉✐❛s ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛

  ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❈❧❡✉♠❛r ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛ ▼♦r❡✐r❛

  

▼❛❝❡✐ó

✷✵✶✺

  ✧◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♣♦rt❛ s❡ ❢❡❝❤❛✱ ♦✉tr❛ s❡ ❛❜r❡✳ ▼❛s ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ♥ós ✜❝❛♠♦s ♦❧❤❛♥❞♦ t❛♥t♦ t❡♠♣♦✱ tr✐st❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣♦rt❛ ❢❡❝❤❛❞❛✱ q✉❡ ♥❡♠ ♥♦t❛♠♦s ❛q✉❡❧❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❛❜r✐✉ ♣❛r❛ ♥ós✳✧

  ❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙ Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❣♦st❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛ ❉❡✉s ♣♦r t❡r ♠❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s

  ❞❡ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r ♦ q✉❡ t❡♥❤♦ ❛té ❤♦❥❡ q✉❡ s❡♠ ❞✉✈✐❞❛s s❡♠ ♦ q✉❛❧ ♥❛❞❛ s❡r✐❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧✳ ➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✱ ♣♦r ❡st❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❝♦♠✐❣♦ ❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡♠ ♠✐♠✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦✱ t❛♠❜é♠✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛✱ ▲②❣✐❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦✳ ❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ Pr♦❢✳ ❈❧❡✉♠❛r ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♠❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❛r ♥❡st❡ ♥♦✈♦ ❝❛♠✐✲

  ♥❤♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♠✱ ♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦❀ ♣♦r s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❞✐s♣❡♥s❛❞❛✳

  ❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ Pr♦❢✳ ▲❡❛♥❞r♦ ❉✐❛s ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❞✐s♣❡♥s❛❞❛✳

  ❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ P❛✉❧♦ ❈✉♥❤❛✱ ♣♦r t❡r ♠❡ ❛❥✉❞❛❞♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t❛s ♣❛rt❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  ❆ Pr♦❢❛✳ ▼ô♥✐❝❛ ❳✐♠❡♥❡s✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❡ ♣♦r ♠❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛ ❞❛r ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❛♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦✳

  ❆♦ ♠❡✉ ❛♠✐❣♦ Pr♦❢✳ ■✈♦ ❈❛❧❛❞♦✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛r❝❡r✐❛ ♥♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s q✉❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r❛♠ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❥♦r♥❛❞❛ ♥❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳

  ❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❙■ ❞♦ ■❋❆▲ ❝♦♠ q✉❡♠ t✐✈❡ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈✐✈❡r ❡ ❝r❡s❝❡r ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦✿ ❯③✐❡❧✱ ❋❡❧✐♣❡ ❆❧❡♥❝❛r✱ ❍❛♥❞r✐❦✱ ❚♦♥✐ ❊st❡✈❡s✱ ●❡r❛❧❞♦✱ P❡❞r♦✱ ▼❛✐❧s♦♥✱ ❱❛❧t❡r✳ ❱♦❝ês sã♦ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❝♦♠ ❛s q✉❛✐s ❛♣r❡♥❞✐ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r♦ ❡①❝❡❧❡♥t❡s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✳

  ❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❞♦ ■❈ ❞❛ ❯❋❆▲✿ ◆❡t♦ ❈❛✈❛❧❝❛♥t❡✱ ❏✉s❝✐❧❛♥✱ ■r❛♥✱ ▼❛r❝❡❧♦✱ ■❣♦r✱ ▼✐❝❤❡❧✱ ❉❛♥✐❡❧✱ ❚❛ss✐♦✱ ❊③❡q✉✐❡❧✱ ❇✐❛ ▼❛r✐❛✱ ❆r♠❛♥❞♦✱ ❉❛✈✐❞ ❏♦♥❡s✱ ❆❧❡③②✳✳✳ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ❈♦♠ ♦s q✉❛✐s ♣❛ss❛♠♦s ♠✉✐t❛s ❤♦r❛s ❡st✉❞❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❥✉♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❡ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞❛✳

  ❆♦s P❡ss♦❛❧ q✉❡ ❢❡③ ♦✉ ❢❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ P❘P■✴■❋❆▲✿ ❈❛r❧♦s ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡✱ ❉❛♥✐ ●♦♠❡s✱ ❉❛♥✐ ❈❧❛r❛✱ ▲✉❝❛s✱ ❙t♦é❝✐♦✱ ●✐♥❛❧❞♦ ❏r✱ ❆❞r✐❛♥❛✱ ▲❡♦♥❛r❞♦✱ ❋❡❧✐♣❡✱ ▼✐❧❧❛♥❡✱ ❇✐❛✱ ❆❧t❛♥②s✱ ❋❧á✈✐❛✱ ❊❧❛✐♥❡✱ ❋r❛♥❝❡❛♥❡✱ ▼❛r✐❛ ■✈❡t❡✳✳✳

  ❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s✿ ▼❛r❝♦ ❆♥tô♥✐♦ ❡ ▲✉❝❛s ❚♦rq✉❛t♦ ♣❡❧❛s ❞✐❝❛s ❡ ❛❥✉❞❛✳ ◆ã♦ ♣♦ss♦ ❡sq✉❡❝❡r ❞❡ ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛r ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❤❛

  ❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞❛ ❯❋❆▲✱ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞♦ ■❋❆▲✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ sã♦ ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ q✉❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r❛♠ ♥♦ ♠❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦s ♠❡✉s ❡st✉❞♦s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✳

  ❊♥✜♠✱ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ❛ t♦❞♦s ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ❡st✐✈❡r❛♠ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❡ q✉❡✱ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♦✉tr❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛♠ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡✉ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❘❊❙❯▼❖ ❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♠ s✉❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡♠ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ✭❊❈●✮ ❡ ❡♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❡rt❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❝rít✐❝❛s ♥❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✿ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ q✉❡ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦rtát❡✐s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧❀ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❡ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥❛ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳ ❋♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✉♥✐tár✐♦s✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❏á ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ♥♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✱ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t♦s ❡♥✈✐♦s ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧tâ♥❡♦s✳ ❖s t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✱ r❡✈❡❧❛♠ ❛ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡s✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❆ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✳ ❆♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ▼ó✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ❙❛ú❞❡✳ ❆♥✲ ❞r♦✐❞✳ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛✳

  ❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚ ❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts t❤❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ❛ s②st❡♠ ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ t♦ ❛ss✐st ❤❡❛❧t❤✲ ❝❛r❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s ✐♥ t❤❡✐r tr❡❛t♠❡♥t ♦❢ ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✐♥ ❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ s②st❡♠ t❛s❦s t❤❛t r❡q✉✐r❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s❧② ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✇❤♦ ❛r❡ ✐♥ ♣♦st✲s✉r❣✐❝❛❧ ❝❧✐♥✐❝❛❧ ❝❛s❡s ♦❢ ❝❛r✲ ❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠s✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛t✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ♣r❡s❡♥t✐♥❣ t♦♦❧s ❢♦r ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ ♦❢ ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠ ✭❊❈●✮ ❛♥❞ ✐ss✉✐♥❣ ❛❧❡rts ❛❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣ ❝r✐t✐❝❛❧ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ ❤❡❛rt r❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✳ ❚❤❡ s②st❡♠ ✐s ❞✐✈✐❞❡❞ ✐♥t♦ t❤r❡❡ ❞✐st✐♥❝t ♠♦❞✉❧❡s✿ ▲♦❝❛❧ ♠♦❞✉❧❡ t❤❛t ✐s r❡s♣♦♥s✐❜❧❡ ❢♦r ❛❝q✉✐r✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✬s ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s✱ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ♠♦♥✐✲ t♦r✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐♣♠❡♥t s✉❝❤ ❛s ❛ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤❀ ❚❤❡ ❲❡❜ ♠♦❞✉❧❡ t❤❛t ✐s ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ t♦ ♣❡r❢♦r♠ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ st♦r❛❣❡ ♦❢ ❞❛t❛ ✐♥ ❛ ❝❧♦✉❞ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ▼♦❞✉❧❡ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❛ ❢♦❝✉s❡❞ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❞❡✈✐❝❡s ✇✐t❤ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♥❣ s②st❡♠✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛✐♠s t♦ ❛ss✐st ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s ✐♥ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥s ♦♥ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✬s tr❡❛t♠❡♥t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❡✈❡♥t ♦❢ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ ❝❧✐♥✐❝❛❧ st❛t✉s t❤r♦✉❣❤ r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ ❞✐s♣❧❛② ♦❢ ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s ❛♥❞ r❡❝❡✐✈✐♥❣ ❛❧❡rts✳ ❈❤❡❝❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ s②st❡♠ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t ✐t ✇❛s t❛❦❡♥ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ✉♥✐t t❡st✐♥❣✱ t❡st✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ t❡st✐♥❣ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❆❧r❡❛❞② t❤❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛t✐♦♥ ✇❛s ♣❡r❢♦r♠❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤ ❝♦✉♣❧❡❞ t♦ ❛ s✐♠✉❧❛t♦r ♦❢ ❊❈● s✐❣♥❛❧s✱ t❤❡ ▲♦❝❛❧ ▼♦❞✉❧❡✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❲❡❜ ♠♦❞✉❧❡✱ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ t❡sts ✇❡r❡ s✉❜♠✐tt❡❞ ❜② ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r t♦♦❧✱ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡② ✇❡r❡ ♠❛❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥s s✐♠✉❧t❛♥❡♦✉s ❛❧❡rts✳ ❚❤❡ t❡sts ❝❛rr✐❡❞ ♦✉t ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s✱ s❤♦✇ t❤❡ ❢❡❛s✐❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ s②st❡♠ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❝❛r❡ ♦❢ ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✐♥ ❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡✳ ❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❍♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠s✳ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✳ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠✳

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ■▲❯❙❚❘❆➬Õ❊❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾

  

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   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✳ ✺✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✳ ✺✺

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❙❮▼❇❖▲❖❙ ❊❈● ✲ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ❖▼❙ ✲ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ▼✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❙❛ú❞❡ ●◗▼ ✲ ●♦❛❧ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ ▼❡tr✐❝ ◆❆❙❆ ✲ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❆❡r♦♥❛✉t✐❝s ❛♥❞ ❙♣❛❝❡ ❆❞♠✐♥✐str❛t✐♦♥✳ ❋P●❆ ✲ ❋✐❡❧❞ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠❛❜❧❡ ●❛t❡ ❆rr❛② ❉❙P ✲ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ❙✐❣♥❛❧ Pr♦❝❡ss♦r ❍■❱ ✲ ❍✉♠❛♥ ■♠♠✉♥♦❞❡✜❝✐❡♥❝② ❱✐r✉s ❲❊❇ ✲ ❲♦r❧❞ ❲✐❞❡ ❲❡❜ ●P❙ ✲ ●❧♦❜❛❧ P♦s✐t✐♦♥✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠ ❲■❋■ ✲ ❲✐r❡❧❡ss ❋✐❞❡❧✐t② ❯❙❇ ✲ ❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ❙❡r✐❛❧ ❇✉s P❈ ✲ P❡rs♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ■❙❖ ✲ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞✐③❛t✐♦♥ ■❊❈ ✲ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❊❧❡❝tr♦t❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ ❈♦♠♠✐ss✐♦♥ ❆◆❱■❙❆ ✲ ❆❣ê♥❝✐❛ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❱✐❣✐❧â♥❝✐❛ ❙❛♥✐tár✐❛ ❙❉❑ ✲ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❑✐t ❏❱▼ ✲ ❏❛✈❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡ ❉❱▼ ✲ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡ ❆P■ ✲ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠✐♥❣ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❏❙❖◆ ✲ ❏❛✈❛❙❝r✐♣t ❖❜❥❡❝t ◆♦t❛t✐♦♥ ❊❈▼❆ ✲ ❊✉r♦♣❡❛♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ▼❛♥✉❢❛❝t✉r❡rs ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ❆◆❙■ ✲ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞s ■♥st✐t✉t❡ ❇P▼ ✲ ❇❡❛ts P❡r ▼✐♥✉t❡ ❍❚❚P ✲ ❍②♣❡r❚❡①t ❚r❛♥s❢❡r Pr♦t♦❝♦❧ ❍❉ ✲ ❍❛r❞ ❉✐s❦ ❙❙❉ ✲ ❙♦❧✐❞✲❙t❛t❡ ❉r✐✈❡

  ❙❯▼➪❘■❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✶✾

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✶✾

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✷✵

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✷✵

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✷✶

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✳ ✸✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✺✽

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✻✶

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✻✷

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳

  ✻✹

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻

  ✶✷

  ✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖ ❆ t❡❧❡❢♦♥✐❛ ♠ó✈❡❧ t❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s

  ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ✭s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✱ t❛❜❧❡ts✱ ♣❛❧♠t♦♣s✮ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ t❛✐s ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠✱ ❡♠ ✈✐rt✉❞❡ ❞✐st♦✱ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ár❡❛s ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ à ♣r♦♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳

  ◆❛ t❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛❞❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❥á ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✳ ❖ q✉❡ ❞❡✉ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❛♦ t❡r♠♦ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♦✉ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❝♦♠✉♥s ❞♦ ❞✐❛✲❛✲❞✐❛ ❞❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✱ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠❡❞✐❝♦ ❛ ❞✐st❛♥❝✐❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❢♦❝♦✱ ❡st❛r ❡♠ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♥❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❞♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳

  ❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ❡♠ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❛♣r✐♠♦r❛r❛♠ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞❛s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✱ ♣♦✐s ✉♠ ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ t❡r ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛❞♦s✱ ❡♠ s✉❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛✳

  ❆ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♥♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ tr❛③❡♠ ❣❛♥❤♦s s✐❣✲ ♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ár❡❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s s❡♥❞♦ ❛t❡♥❞✐❞♦s✱ r❛♣✐❞❡③ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♠❡❞✐❝❛s✱ ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜s✲ s✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❞✐ss❡♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❡ ❛❣✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡

  P♦ré♠✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❞❡ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦s ❞❡ ♣❛ís❡s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐✲ ❞♦s✱ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛ ❡st❛ ár❡❛✳ P❡r♠❛♥❡❝❡ ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♦✿ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛✲ çõ❡s ♠é❞✐❝❛s✱ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦

  ❆✐♥❞❛ ♥❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡st✉❞♦s ❛♣♦♥t❛♠ q✉❡ ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❡♠ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦✱ ♣♦✉❝❛s sã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s ❝✉st♦s ❛❧t♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦

  ❙❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ss❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♦❢❡rt❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❝♦♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✱ ♠✉✐t♦s ❧❡✐t♦s ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r❡s s❡r✐❛♠ ❞❡s♦❝✉♣❛❞♦s ❡ ✜❝❛r✐❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ♠❛✐s ❣r❛✈❡s✳ ◆♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ é r❡❧❛t❛❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ✈❛❣❛s ❡♠ ❤♦s♣✐t❛✐s sã♦ ♦❝✉♣❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝rô♥✐❝❛s

  ✶✸ ♥ã♦ tr❛♥s♠✐ssí✈❡✐s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✉❛s r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳

  ❆s ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s ❡stã♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❛s ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝rô♥✐❝❛s ♥ã♦ tr❛♥s✲ ♠✐ssí✈❡✐s ❡✱ ❛✐♥❞❛✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❛ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ▼✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❙❛ú❞❡ ✭❖▼❙✮✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝❛✉s❛ ❞❡ ♠♦rt❡s ❡♠ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡t❛ ♥❛ ✉❧t✐♠❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛✳ P♦r ❡ss❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s✱ ✶✼ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ♠♦rt❡s ❡♠ ♠é❞✐❛ ♣♦r ❛♥♦✱ ❛t✐♥❣✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✶✸✱✷ ❞♦ ♣❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❛s ❝❛✉s❛s ❞❡ ♠♦rt❡ ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦

  P❛r❛ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦✲ ♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✱ ❤á ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦✲ r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ sã♦ ♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❊❧❡s ❡stã♦ s❡♠♣r❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦s ❛ ❡ss❡s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❝♦♠ ❞♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ✭❝♦♠♦ ♠✐❝r♦❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❋P●❆s✱ ❉❙Ps ❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❡♠❜❛r❝❛❞♦s✮✱ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦s ❛ s✐st❡♠❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❡♠ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ r❡♠♦t❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛❧ té❝♥✐❝♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳

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