A contribution to the study of the association quercetum montanum Čer. et Jov. 1953. in north-east Serbia

fflACHHK WYMAPCI{0f cI>AKYflTETA,I;EOrPAP;,?003,

BIBLIO:

6p.

87,CTp. 197-210

0353-4537, (2003),87, P 197-210

U OK:

3aropKa TOMun

630* 188: 582.632.2

0PI1HIHaJlHI1 HaYlJHI1 pan

llPMJIOr l103HABAlbY ACOl(MJAl(MJE QUERCETUM MONTANUM Cer. et Jov. 1953. Y CEBEPOMCTOqHOJ CPIiMJM

11380JJ.:

Y paay ce ofipahy]« acounjauaja Quercetum montanum Cer. et

.JOY.

1953.

Y ceaepoucro-moj Cpfinja. Jl,e Kn.y-me pe-m: xpacr KI1T1haK, acouajauaja, cyfiacouajauaja, cenepoacro-ma

Cpfiaja
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION QUERCETUM MONTANUM Cer. et JOY. 1953. IN NORTH-EAST SERBIA
Abstract: The association Quercetum montanum Cer. et .TOY. 1953 in north-east
Serbia is researched. Its site conditions, structure and floristic composition are defined and four subassoeiations are designated based on the differences in soils and
differential species: ornetosum, pauperum, typicum and tilietosum.
Key words: sessile oak; association; subassociation; north-east Serbia

1. YBO,IJ;
Ilonpy-tje CCBCpOI1CTO'IHC Cp611jc O)l,JlI1KyjC ce

BCOMa CnCl\l1Cpl1'IHOM BCrCTal\HjoM,

YCJlOBJbCHOM yJlTpaKOHTpacTHoM KJlHMOM 11 BCJlI1KOM synupanourhy
XOBI1

nnauana jC).I.Ba npenase

1000

m

Ha).l.MOpCKC BHCHHC,

ann

repena. Hajsmnu sp-

cy Ham611 BCJlHKI1, MHOro-

npncojnnx crpam), I1CKJbY'II1BO
WyMC 6yKBC na CCBCp-

6pOjHC ).I.OJlI1HC CTpMO YCC'ICHC, a MI1KpOKJlI1MaTCKC pa3JlHKC OCOjHHX H

na orpouue.
na

Y 6p).l.CKOM ).I.CJly osor

CI1JlI1KaTHI1M CTCHaMa,

najsehe

nonpysja (Ha).l.M.

nOBpWI1HC 3ay311Majy 6p).l.CKC

HHM H MOHO).l.OMHHaHTHC WyMC KI1TtbaKa

je,

BI1CI1HC OKO 400-800

na jY)\(HI1M

CKCII0311l\l1jaMa. ITpCJla3HC

rtonozca-

umpoxe nJlaTOC 3aY3HMajy wyMC 6YKBc-KHTthaKa 11 KHTlhaKa-rpa6a, xao sajC).I.HI1l\C umpe CKOJIOWKC aMIIJlI1Ty).l.C. WyMC KI1TlhaKa, najtiorse i ー Qjャ。イoセch」
aa CKCTpCMIIC CTaHI1WHC YCJlOBC, OCHM CTpMI1X, TOnJlI1X naznnra, 3ay3HMajy raxohe H yCKC xprrrose
).I.OJlI1HC H

rpefieaa

11

maanue.

op Taeoptca TOMUI1, pea. npodiecop, lllyuapcsu ¢aK)!Jlmem Ynuceprumema y Beoepaoy; Beoepao
197

3aropKa TOMwn
ACOlJ,HjaUMja Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov. 1953. y MCTOqHOj Cp6WjM Y BeJIHKOj MepH ce pa3JIMKYje on KHTlbaKOBHX IlIyMa y cpemsoj Eapona, na -rax H on OHMX Y Xpnarcxoj 11 sehera neny Eocne, TaKO na je BpJIO pauo npHByKJIa naaosy nay-nnrxa, rIPBH
nyr je onacana (JOBaHOBHn, 1948) H ayropasoaaua (qeplbaBcKH, JOBaHoBHn,
1950) 6aIll y ceaepoucrounoj Cp6HjH, aa Majnaanesxoj ,ll.OMeHH. Kacnnje je sajenaaua
nerarsanje npoyseaa on BMille ayropa ua pa3HHM JIOKaJIHTeTHMa HCTOqHe Cpfiaje: na CyBOj nJIaHHHH (J 0 Ba a 0 B ah , 1953; 1980.); Crapoj nJIaHHHH (M HIII Hn et al., 1978), ):(eJIH-JoBaHY H KpajHHH (KaJI HHn h , M HIII a h , ):( HH u h , 1984); y hepnarrcxoa nonpysjy
(MHIlIHn, 1967), aa Mnposy M QpHOM Bpxy (fJIMIlIMn, 1976) H npyru,

Harepecaarno je na M3BopHa acounjaunja, na Majnannesxoj ,ll.OMeHM, HMje neraJbHMje aHaJIMTMqKO-CTaTMCTMqKM oopahena H npesenroaana onrosapajyhaa dnrronenoJIOIllKMM Ta6eJIaMa. Crora ce y OBOM pany npuxasyjy pe3yJITaTM acrpaacnaau,a acolJ,HjaUMje Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov. 1953. ca ):(oMeHe Mjour HeKOJIMKO JIOKaJIMTeTa y Haj6JIM)I(oj OKOJIMHM.

2. 06JEKAT

hctpaセhbaiィaL

MATEPHJAJI H

metoセ

Kao M3BOPHH MaTepMjaJI aa pan nOCJIy)l(MJIO je ysynao 46 KeJIe3HMK, PaBHa pexa H TO,ll.0pOBa pexa); 20 M3 IIIYMCKe cexunje ):(OIbM MMJIaHOBau I'J ,,3JIaTMlJ,a".

On CHMMaKa je y HHTerpaJIHOM 06JIHKY, re je crora npnxaaana y Ca)l(eTKY. HaHMe,y npanosseaoj Ta6eJIH
cy ,ll.aTM CTeneHM npHcyTHocTM M npOCeqHe Bpe,ll.HOCTH 3a OCTaJIe aHaJIMTMqKO-CTaTHCTHtlKe eJIeMeHTe (y unnexcy sa fipojaocr-noxpoaaocr H 3,ll.pY)l(eHocT) caao sa 36HpHO
rrocnarpane cyoacouajauaje H eKOJIOiliKe aapajaare, a HeMa rtonataxa sa nojeaaaaane

3. PE3YJITATH hctpaセbiィ
3.1.

CTaHHmHH yeJIORH

Cacrojnae OBe sajennaue sa lJ,eJIOM nonpysjy acrpaacasan.a saysmrajy HCKJbyqHBO TOllJIe excnoaauaje y pacnony Ha,ll.MOpCKHX BHCHHa on 350-600 m. Y aJITepHaUHjH
ca 6yKOBHM IIIYMaMa na XJIa,ll.HHM (ymasnoa ceaepaasr) eKCn03HlJ,HjaMa nsrpahyjy jacno
,ll.M npenasa y IIIYMe KMTlbaKa-rpa6a. MOHO,ll.OMMHaHTHe KHTlbaKOBe urysre 3ay311Majy HCTaKBYTe, ourrpe rpeoene H rnanaue, xao H TOnJIe eKCn03MlJ,Hje BenHX HarH6a - H npexo 30°.
198

DPHJlOf rrosuaaan.y acounjauaje Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov.

cyncrpar

1953. y cesepoacrosaoj

Cp6HjH

rnajc, llIKpHJbUH,
sehaua cnyuajeaa LJ,I1CTpwlHa H peI)e eyrpn-ma cMel)a, Malhe I111H amue cxenerua H Pa311l1qI1THX LJ,y6HHa. CaMO y cyoacounjaUl1jH ca UPHIiM jacenoa jasrsajy ce XyMyCHo-cl111HKaTHa 3eMJbHllITa na rnajcy, xoja cy
nnaha, cxenernaja H cynn.a OLJ, CMetjHX.
MaTHqHH

'1HHC, yrnaauoa, KHCCllC CHllHKaTHC CTCHe:

MI1KaUHiCTH, nOHeKaLJ, aM
3.2. Tpaha

U «}lJlOPUCTUqKU

cacran

Cacrojane cy perxor cxnona H MalhHX BHCI1Ha (LJ,O OKO 20 m), ca anconyrnoa LJ,Oxrrnsasa y cnpary npseha. Y THnli'lHoj BapHjaHTI1 llIyMe y cnpary npseha
HeMa npaueca, a cTa611a iorra.axa, yrnaaaoa H3LJ,aHa'lKOr nopexna, yjenaaneua cy no BHCHHaMa H npexaauava, HCTe CTapOCTH, TaKO LJ,a cacrojnae noncehajy na xyrrrype.

MHHaUHjoM

Cnpar

IillH peher cxnona, yrnaanou,
npeonnahyje Quercus petraea agg. (Matt.)
Liebl. H3LJ,aHa'lKOr nopexna. OCHM KI1TlhaKa, janrsajy ce joui H: Fraxinus ornus L., Acer
campestre L., Pyrus pyraster Burg., Malus silvestris Mill., Crataegus monogyna Jack.,
Cornus mas L. 11 LJ,pyre LJ,pBeHaCTe spcre.

usrpahea

)I{6ylha je y pa3HHM

eapajaaraaa ryurher

OLJ, nOLJ,MllaTKa npseha, Metjy KojliMa

Ilpmeana dmopa je,

360r

perxor cxnona

BHWHX

cnparoaa, spno 6yjHa H nennxe
sersacre 6HJbKe 11 1 Maxo-

nOKpOBHOCTI1. Y3 nOLJ,M11aLJ,aK LJ,pBeHaCTI1X, OBLJ,e ce HaJ1a3e 53
BHHa, a

najsehe yseurhe

I1Majy

rpase

113 epaMI111l1je Poaceaea H BpCTe Wl1pOKe eKOllOWKe

awnmrryne. Ilocvarpajyhn yxynau eKOllOWKII CI1eKTap, nana y OqH nennxo yveurhe xcepodnrra 11 nHOHl1pCKIiX BpCTa, LJ,OK Me30epHTe CKOpO rrornyno usocrajy, OCIiM y cy6acoUl1jaUl1jl1 ca 6ellOM 11l1nOM, me cy yrnaanou H LJ,l1epepeHUHjaJ1He BpCTe.
Y qll1ToueHollowKoj rafienn aafienexeuo je yxynno 76 apcra, IUTO npencrann,a
saamo epllOPI1CTI1'1KO 60raTcTBo, nororosy KaLJ,a ce Y3Me y 06311P usocrajan.e 113BeCHOr
6poja spcra ca MaJ1HM CTerreHOM npacyrnocra 360r Ca)l{l1Malha epliToueHollowKe rafiene,
Kao CKllOHe spcre, ca penarnaao HI1CKHM CTeneHOM KapaKTep"CTlqHOCTH, MOry ce 1i3LJ,BOjl1TI1 cnenehe: Quercus petraea agg. (Matt.) Liebl., Fraxinus ornus L., Rosa arvensis
Huds., Genista ovata W. et K., Dactylis polygama Horv., Festuca heterophylla Lam.,
Festuca drymeia Mert, et Kach., Poa nemoralis L., Galium pseudoaristatum Schur., Galium schultesii Vest., Calamintha vulgaris Druce., Fragaria vesca L., Stellaria holostea L. 11 Rumex sanguineus L.

3.3.

}KUBOTHU

cnexrpa acouujaunje

3.3.1. Cnercrap

JKHBOTHHX 0611HKa

21 apcra

P - epaHepoepHTH

.

Ch - xaMeepHTH

8 epcra
. 38 npcra
. 7 spcra

H - XeMHKpl1nTOepHTH
G - reodnrrn

.

28%
11%

50%
9%
199

3aropKa

TOMl1n

T - repodiaru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
8r - MaxoBHHe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1 BpCTa

1%

1 BpcTa

1%

Cnexrap )I(HBOTHM:X 06nHKa sa ueny acounjannjy je xesraxparrro-dianeporpa'rcsor
xapaxrepa, Tj. noxasyje Malbe-BHrne yofiasajene O,D.HOCe, CTHM urro je 6poj ljJaHepoljJM:Ta
neurro BeOH Hero KO,D. OCTMHX MOHo,D.oMHHaHTHHX KHTlbaKOBI1X uryua, oopaheaax 0,D.
CTPaHe npyrnx ayropa. Me1jyTHM, rpefia HMaTM: y BM:,D.y na je OBO nocnennua seher npacycrsa ,D.pBeHaCTHX BpCTa y Me30ljJM:nHHjHM cyoacouajauajava tilietosum M: typicum, ,D.OK
je y eKCTpeMHHjHM eKOnoIllKM:M ycnoaaua, y cyoacouajauajaaa ornetosum H pauperum,
raj 6poj ynona MalbM: (cnera 11 npcra). Cpa3MepHO BenM:KH 6poj xaMeljJHTa yxasyje aa
uerroaorsae CTaHI1IllHe ycnose. Y KapaKTepM:CTl1'IHOM cxyny, ys najaehn 6poj XeMHKpl1.nTOljJHTa, ysecrayjy y CKOpO nonjenuaxoa 6pojy xaMeljJHTH (Stel/aria holostea, Genista

ovata, Veronica teucrium)

H

reodnrrn (Galium pseudoaristatum, Galium schultesii).

3.3.2. Cnexrap apean-rnnoaa
Cpemseeeponcxu

11.

cyticpemseeaponcxa

25 npcra

EBpOa3M:jCKH, cytieapoaaajcsu M: Cy6jy)l(HOCH6I1.pCKM:
15 BpCTa
IToHTCKM:, noHTCKo-naHOHCKHH nOHTcKo-cy6Me,D.HTepaHCKM:
13 BpCTa
Cy6Me,D.M:TepaHCKM:
7 spcra
Llapxyanonapnu
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6 BpcTa
Cy6aTJ1aHTCKo-cy6Me,D.HTepaHcKH
5 spcta
Eanxaacxn, anncxo-sapnarcsn H Me3M:jcKM:
5 npcra

33%
19%
17%
9%
8%
7%
7%

AaneKo uajaehn neo cnextpa apean-runona (dinopao-reorpadrcxax eneaenara)
qM:He cpemseesponcxe H cyocpemeeesporrcxe apcre (33%). AKO ce oaosr 6pojy nonajy H
apyre ITO 3acTYITJbeHOCTH eapoasajcxe (19%), na 11. cyoarnaarcso-cyriaennrepaacse
(7%), npOH3Hna3H na oxo 60% aacryrrrseaux BpCTa HMa cpasaepno unrpoxe apeane, ITa
caMHM THM H esonoruxy axnnaryny, rj. na acounjanaja HM:je ,D.OBOJbHO ,D.eljJHHHcaHa. Me1jyTHM, CneUM:ljJHqHOCT acounjauaje aspaacaaa ce y oHOM ztpyrosr neny cnexrpa, axo ce
nocaarpa y nenana. Taj npyrn neo, xoja onpaxaaa ljJnopHo-reorpaljJcKy npnnanaocr H
sonrpacrnocr KJIHMaTCKHX ycnoaa, qHHe: noHTCKH, nOHTCKO-naHOHCKH H nonrcxo-cyfiMe,D.HTepaHCKH ca 17%; cy6Me,D.HTepaHCKM: ca 9%; UHpKyMnonapHH ca 8%; 6anKaHcKH,
cy66anKaHcKH, anncxo-sapnarcxa H Me3M:jcKH ca 7%, urro je YKYnHo 41%. GBHX 40%
BpCTa nornphyjy CneUM:ljJHqHH xapaxrep MoHO,D.OMHHaHTHHX KHTlf:,aKOBHX tnyua cesepoHCTOqHe Cpfmje. Hcroapesreno HXHecyMlbHBo H3,D.Baja H3 KoMnneKca 3HaTHo Me30ljJHnHHjHX cpemseeaponcxax H HnHpcKHX KHTlbaKOBHX urysra, cspcranax y cBe3Y Quercion

robori- petraeae 8r.-81.1947.

3.4. CHHTaKcoHoMHja
Acouajauuja Quercetum montanum Cer. et JOY. 1953. npanana CBe3H Quercion
petraeae-cerris Laks. et JOY. 1980. H pe,D.y Quercetalia pubescentis 8r.-81.1932.
200

Ilpnnor nosaasaisy acouajauaje Quercetum montanumCer, et Jov. 1953. y ceaepoacrosaoj Cp6njn
J!:eqJHHHCalhe HH)I{HX CHHTaKCOHa y OKBHpy aconajannje asnpmeao je rrpsencraeHO na exonourxov, a TeK 3aTHM na $nopHCTH'IKOM npannany. HaHMe, npB06HTHa )],H$epeauajauaja 3aCHOBaHa je aa OCHOBy cTaHHIllHHx, npaencrneao enadrcxax pasnaxa - pa3nW-lHTHX THnOBa H nO)],THnOBa 3eMJbHIllTa - y UHJbY mnaajau.a eKonOIllKHX jenaaaua
(1 OB n h et al., 1987, 1988).1l0IllTo cy ce TOM npanaxou jacuo H3)],BojHne )],H$epeHUHjanne BpCTe, npB06HTHO )],e$HHHcaHHM eKonOIllKHM sapajanraaa nar je panr cyoaconajaunja. Y OKBHpy aconajaunje na osaj HaqHH asnaojena cy 4 HH)l{a CHHTaKCOHa - cy6aco-

nnjanaje: ornetosum, pauperum, typicum

H

tilietosum.

3.4.1. Subass. ornetosum
Cytiacouajauaja ca UPHllM jacenou npencranrsa najxceporepvaujy aapnjaary
KHTlhaKOBHX uryua, a )],H$epeHUHpaHa je npaeacraeno 3HaTHllM yqelllheM upnor jacena
(Fraxinus ornus) y cnpary npseha, Ilojana OBe cyfiacounjauaje ycnonrsena je oporpadicxo-enarpcxa. Cacrojnne ce jaarsajy aa MalhHM Ha)],MopCKHM BHCHHaMa (ucnon 500 m),
na ronnnu jyrosanannaw, jy)l{HHM H jyroacronaaa eKcn0311UHjaMa H na nnHTKHM, CKeneTHHM H CYBHM, nperescuo xyMycHo-cHnHKaTHHM (nonexan H cMefjHM) 3eMJbHIllTHMa.
OCHM npacycrsa upnor jacena y cnpary npseha, OBa exonourxa sapajanra onnasyje ce $nopllCTH4KHM CHpOMaIllTBOM, ManOM nospoauoiuhy cnparosa npseha H )l{6ylha
II nsocrajan.ea seher 6poja qeCTHX nparnnana rnnasne sajennnue (Luzula luzuloides
D et w., Chamaecytisus supinus Link., Veronica teucrium L., Carpinus betulus L. II np.).
Kao )],ll$epeHUHjanHe spcre asnaajajy ce Lychnis coronaria Desr. Jol Arabis turrita L.

3.4.2. Subass. pauperum
OBa cyoacouajaunja xapaxrepaure ce y cnpary npaeha HCKJbyqHBOM )],OMHHaUUjOM xnrn.axa, ronnau excnoaanajaaa, neurro BehuM Ha)],MopCKllM BUCllHaMa (370520 m) H Ham6HMa (20-30°). 3eMJbUillTa cy pasaajena )],HcTpH4Ha cMefja, ann cxenerna,
ronna, cysa, jase aUH)],H$HKoBaHa, 4eCTO U )],emiMH4HO eponapana.

Cyfiacouajanaja je aeurro Me30TepMHHja 0)], nperxozme, ana JOIll yaex $nopucTHqKH cnporaaunra. Onnaxyje ce qeCTHM $auujeCJolMa Poa nemoralis L. (5.5), Festuca drymeia Mert. et Kach. (4.4) ll. Luzula luzuloides D. et W. (4.4), a xao )],H$epeHuujanHe spCTe H3)],Bajajy ce Lathyrus niger Bernh. H Musci spp.

3.4.3. Subass. typicum
TJolnH4Ha cytiacounjauaja 3aY3HMa rpefietre, rnasune H Tonne excnosnuuje neurro
MalhUX Ham6a (0-20°), aa Ha)],MopcKUM BHCll.HaMa 360-550 m. 3eMJbHIllTa cy pasaajena
nncrpmaa Jol eyrpasna cMefja, ca Malhe cxenera Hero y nperxonnaa cyfiacouajauujaua,
)],y60Ka OKO 50 em.
201

3aropKa TOMlin

Y cnpary npseha KHTlDaK je jeaana BpCTa, ,l(OK je cnpar )l(6ylba HewTO 60raTHjH.
Ty ce, OCHM H3,1(aHalJ.KHX npauepaxa Quercus petraea agg. (Matt.) Liebl. ca BHCOKHM
CTeneHOM rrpncyraocra, jaarsajy jour H: Fraxinus ornus L., Fagus moesiaca (Domin,
Maly) Czeczott., Prunus avium L., Carpinus betulus L., Acer campestre L., Crataegus
monogyna Jackq., Rosa canina L. H np. Y qmOpHCTHlJ.KH 60raToM cnpary npasesme
seher 6poja Me30 cytiacouajaunje: Rubus hirtus W. et K., Carex pilosa Scop., Asperula odorata L., Daphne
laureola L., Polypodium vulgare L. H np,

3.4.4. Subass. tilietosum
Cytiaconajannja ca 6eJIOM JIHnOM je HajMe30 xoja ce jasrsa aa ,l(O,l(Hpy ca 6p,l(CKHM 6yKOBHM wyMaMa. Ha,l(MOpCKe BHCHHe cy HCTe xao
y THnHlJ.Hoj cytiaconajauaja, eKcn03HUHje jour ynex npereaoro TOnJIe, a HarH6H MalbH.
3eMJbHWTa cy ,l(y60Ka (60-80 cm), ,l(HCTpHlJ.Ha H eyrpaxaa cMelja, ystepeao KHCeJIe peaxunje, ca MaJIO cxenera - TO cy nuane najnponysrasnaja 3eMJbHWTa y MOHO,l(OMHHaHTHHM
KHTlbaKOBHM llIyMaMa.

Y cnpary npseha, ys KHTlbaK, xao cy6e,l(H argentea Desf.) H KJIeH (Acer campestre L.). Cnpar )l(6ylba je 60raTHjH Hero y CBHM
,l(pyrHM cyoacouajauajaaa H HCTHlJ.e ce, ys pannje rrovenyre BpCTe, npacycrsou HeKIiX
Me30 0,1( KOjHX cy HeKe II ,l(1I
4. ,ll,HCKYCHJA
Hama hctーセi b。ャ「
ua nonpysjy ceBepOIiCTOlJ.He Cpfinje nOTBp,l(lIJIa cy nOCTOjan.e 1I3BOpHe aconnjauaje Quercetum montanum Cer, et Jov. 1953. H n.eno ncnpasao
,l(H M H WHO H Capa,l(HHUH (1978) aa Crapoj nJIaHIIHH, JOB a HOBH0 (1980) na CyBOj nnaHHHII, J a a KOBHO II MH mHO (1980),,lJ;H HHO H Capa,l(HHUH (1998) na pyWKOj Iopa,
MHllIHO H Capa,l(HHUH (1982, 1983, 1984) Y jy)l(HOj Cp6HjH, MHWHO (1967) y hep,l(anCKOM nonpysjy, Ko p ah (1985) aa Jyxopy, MIIWHO H capMHHUH (1985) aa saure
JIOKaJIHTeTa y HCTOlJ.HOj Cp6HjH II aa pyllIKOj Fopn II npyra.
202

IIpl1J1or nosaaaarsy acounjanaje Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov. 1953. y cesepoucrosnoj Cp611jl1

Maa.n 6poj panona, OCMM M3BOpHMX JOBaHoBMoa M Heptsaacxor; OAHOCM ce na
Y)Ke nonpynje ceBepOMCTO'-IHe Cpfiaje. TIPM TOMe BeOMHa ayropa sanpacana I13BOpHO MMe
acounjannje, M3ABajajYOM cyoaconajaunje I1JIM sapajairre, aJIl1 MMa M Apymx npavepa.
Ha MMp04y MU,pHOM Bpxy rJIMIIlMO (1976) M3ABaja y OKBHpy acouajaunje ABe
cyriacounjaunje: subass. typicum na BI1IIlMM M subass. carpinetosum orientalis aa HM)KMM
nOJIO)KajMMa.
JOBaHOBI1O (raj MO, 1985) na Majnannesxoj AOMeHM M3ABaja 3 cyfiacounjauaje:
luzuletosum nemorosae, festucetosum drymeiae M caricetosum pilosae M jenny HOBy
aconnjaunjy - Musco-Quercetum petraeae.

K aJI MHMO 11 capannmta (1984) na .ll.eJIM-JoBaHy 11 y Kpajnua AeqlHHMIIlY 4 acounjauaje: y BMIIleM rrojacy Quercetum montanum M Poeto-Quercetum montanum, a y
HI1)KeM Orno-Quercetum petraeae M Quercetum submontanum.
K pCT 110 (1989) Y CBOjOj AOKTOpCKOj naceprannja M3ABaja lIaK 5 acounjanaja, OA
KOjMx cy nexe y panosana nperxonnnx ayropa rpernpane xao cytiacouajaunje: Luzulo
nemorosae-Quercetum montanum, Orysopsio-Quercetum montanum cerretosum, Festuco
heterophyllae-Quercetum montanum, Festuco drymeiae-Quercetum montanum M Carici
pilosae-Quercetum montanum.
Ynopehyjyhn CI1HTaKCOHe AMcj>epeHlI,HpaHe y HaBeAeHMM panosuva, BMAH ce na ce
HeKM OA eAHcj>HKaTopa H AHcj>epeHlI,HjaJIHMX spcra (Fraxinus ornus L., Poa nemoralis L.,
Luzula luzuloides D. et W., Festuca drymeia Mert. et Kach.) nouasn.ajy y BMIIle cy6aconnjanaja, 4aK 11 acounjanaja, IIlTO nnje y CKJIaAy ca cj>JIOpHCTMlIKHM npHHlI,MnMMa BpaynbJIaHKeOBe IIlKOJIe sa asnaajau,e CHHTaKCOHa. To Hac je HaBeJIO na y yzce CXBaoeHOM pemOHY ceBepOHCT04He Cpfinje (6e3 fiepnancxe KJIHcype H Crape rrJIaHMHe) Aecj>HHI1IIleMO
cave jenny, 113BOpHy aconnjaunjy Quercetum montanum Cer, et Jov.1953. Y OKBMpy lbe,
I1pBO CMO H3BPIIlHJII1 I10AeJIy na eKOJIOIIlKe sapujaare, aa OCHOBy npl1HlI,HI1a ycsojennx
npn Aecj>HHMcalby eKOJIOIIlKMX jeAMHHlI,a, rj, y3HMajyol1 y 063Mp npBeHCTBeHO 3eMJbHIIl're, a 3aTHM M oporpaocxe yCJIOBe (J 0 BH0 et al. 1987, 1988, 1997). TeK xacauje, ysaacasajyha cj>JIOpHCTH4Ke I1pMH1I,Hne y cj>opMl1paHoj cj>MTOll,eHOJIOIIlKoj Ta6eJIM, H3ABOjMJIH
CMO AMcj>epeHlI,MjaJIHe npcre, xoje jacno onsajajy nojennne cytiacounjauaje, 6HTHO pa3JIHlIl1Te no CTaHHIIlHHM yCJIOBHMa, rj. npBo6HTHO H3ABojeHe eKOJIOIIlKe aapajaure Aecj>MHHCaJIM CMO xao cytiacounjauaje.

UNSakj「yセ

Ha OCHOBy COI1CTBeHMX acrpaxasaaa y cesepoacroxaoj Cp6HjM je Aecj>MHHcaHa
H OI1HCaHa acounjauaja Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov.1953. OBa MOHOAOMHHaHTHa
myaa xansaxa 3aY3MMa rpefiene, rnasaue M TOI1JIe eKCn03HlI,Hje y 6PACKOM nojacy, aJIrepnapajyhn ca 3ajeAHHlI,OM Fagetum moesiacae submontanum (Rud.1949) Jov.1967. aa
XJIaAHMjMM eKCn03HlI,MjaMa.

Acounjauaja je AMcj>epeHlI,MpaHa aa 4 eKOJIOIIlKe sapajaare (cytiacouajaunje):
203

3aropKa TOMlin
- subass. ornetosum, ca UPHI1M jaceuou xao JJ.l1tPepeHUl1jaJIHOM BpCTOM y cnpary
npseha, je najsceporepsnraja sapnjaara, aa Malhl1M Ha,L{MOpCKHM BHCI1HaMa 11
I1JIHTKHM, CKeJIeTHHM 11 CyBHM, I1peTe)l(HO xyMyCHO-CHJIHKaTHI1M 3eMJbHlllTHMa;
- subass. pauperum, tPJIOpHCTHqKH capovanma, ca tPaUHjecl1Ma Poa nemoralis L., Festuca drymeia Mert. et Kach. H Luzula luzuloides D. et W. aesana je sa
TOI1JIa, CKeJIeTHa, cysa, jase al\HJJ.l1tPHKOBaHa, 110HeKaJJ. H eponnpaaa JJ.I1CTpl1qHa
cMel)a seun.nnrra;
subass. typicum je tPJIOPI1CTHqKH fiorarnja, ca cTa6HJIHHM KapaKTepHCTHqHHM
CKYI10M H 3HaTHHjHM yqelllneM Me30tPHTa, a HaJIa311 ce aa Tl1l1HqHHM JJ.HCTPHqHHM H eyTpHqHHM cMel)I1M 3eMJbHlllTHMa;
- subass. tilietosum je HajMe30tPHJIHI1ja aapajarrra, ca ysemhev TWa argentea
Desf., Carpinus betulus L., Fagus moesiaca (Domin, Maly) Czeczott. H JJ.pyrHM
Me30tPHTHMa y CBa TpH cnpara, aa )J.y60KHM cMel)HM 3eMJbHlllTHMa, CKOpO 6e3
CKeJIeTa. ITpocTOpHO ce nonapyje ca 6PJJ.CKHM 6yKOBHM lIlyMaMa.

Y paJJ.Y je JJ.OKa3aHO JJ.a ce I1pH JJ.etPHHHcafbY CI1HTaKCOHa y tPHToueHOJIOlIlKHM HCTpa)l(HBafbHMa, nopen tPJIOpHCTHqKHX, Mopajy y rrynoj Mepl1 YBa)l(aBaTH H eKOJIOlllKe KOMI10HeHTe, rj. 3HaqajHHje pa3JIHKe y CTaHHlllHHM yCJIOBHMa.

JIHTEPATYPA
I'aj lin M. (1985): (/>Jlopa Majoauneuxe ooueue - llpue peke, WOJJ. "MOMl{liJIO Ilonoaah", WyMCKIi ornennn uerrrap Illyaapcxor !jJaKyJITeTa, JJ.e6eJIIi JIyr
I" JI Iiill Iin M. (1976): lllyucse dnonouenose npuepeouuxjeounuua ; Mupou" U"L(pHU Bpx '; 360pHliK panosa MHCTliTyT aa urysrapcrao Ii,npB. liH,nyCTplijy XIII-XlV, Beorpan (75-107)
JJ. IiHIi h A., M Iiill Iin B., CaB Iin JJ.. (1998): The phytocoenosis of sessile oak and silver linden
(Tilio tomentosae - Quercetum petraeae ass. nova) on the ridges ofthe Fruska Cora mt., 360PHliK Maraue cprrcse sa npap, aayxe 95, HOBIi Can (71-82)
Ja a xo a ah M. Mn nra h B. (1980): lllyucxa eezemauuja u drumoueuose (/>pyUlKe rope, MOHOrpatpnja, Marana cpncxa - Onen.en.e sa npaponae nayxe, HOBIi Can
JOBa HOB Iin E. (1948): Ilpunue nosnaeansy aenopodmope UlyMCKUX acouujauuja Majoaunesxe
ooueue, Tonaunsa« I10Jb.-illyMap.!jJaKyJIT. 1, Beorpan (301-326)
J o e an o a a h E. (1953): 006eMa dnunouenosaua UCmOIJ.He Cp6uje Quercetum montanum u Fageto-Muscetum, 360pH. CAH XXIX, MHCT. aa eKOJIOr. Ii 6lioreorpa!jJ. CAH, Klh. 3,
Eeo rpaa (1-44)
J 0 a a HOB lin E. (1980): Illyucxe dnunouenose u cmanutuma CY6e nnauuue, fJIaCHliK Illysrapcxor
!jJaKyJITera, noc. aaaan,e, Cep. A-WYMapcTBo N2 55, Illyvapcxa !jJaKyJITeT YHIiaepsarera y Beorpaay, Beorpaa
JOBIi n H., To Mlin 3., K a e ace Blin M, Il aj e r n h a HIi H P. (1987): Seunanuma; eezemauuja u
exonotuxe jeounuue Majoanneuxe ooueue, Haaeurraj no npojexry 3.30.1, pysonac,
Illyaapcxa !jJaKYJITeT YHliBep3liTeTa y Beorpaay, Beorpaa
JOBIi h H., TOM lin 3., K He x e Blin P., Il aj e r a h aa Ii H P. (1988): 3eMlbUUlma. eeeemauuja u
eKOJlOUlKe jeouuuue y rJ ,,3J1amulfa", Hsaeurraj no npojexry 3.30.1., pyxonac,
lllyuapcxn !jJaKyJITeT YHliBep3liTeTa y Beorpaay, Beorpaa
JOBlin H., TOM lin 3., KH e sce Blin M., Il aj e r lin a a IiH P. (1997): Forest Ecosystems cfi.Zlatica" in the National park .Derdap", International Scientific Conference held at

204

ITpMJIOr nosuaaarsy aCOl\Mjm.\Hje Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov. 1953. y cesepoacro-raoj Cp6MjM
Tara National Park "Forest Ecosystems of the National Parks". Monograf on the
subject Inclusive of the Conference Report, Bajina Basta (93-96)
KanMHMn M., MMIllHn B., nMHMn A. (1984): EdarPcKD-6eZema/.fujcKe ocoiieuocmu nnauuue
Ilenu-Joeau U Kpajuue y ceeepoucmounoj Cpbuju, Acta biologica Jugoslavica, Ser.
A, 3eMJbHIllTe H6HJbKa, Vol. 30, nセ 3, Beorpaa (215-256)
K0 pan M. (1985): Illyua xumnsaxa - Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov. ua nnaHUHU Jyxop, llIyMapcTBo 2-3, CI1TllIHITnC, Beorpaa (13-27)
K p c T M n M. (1989): Hcmpancueaiee etconouuco-npouseoouux «apaxmepucmuxa KumfbaK06UX UlyMa U U360p najnoeon.uujee nauuna 06Ha6lbG/ba na noopynjy ce6epOUCmO'IHe Cp6uje, ,nOKTOpCKa ,nMcepTal\Hja y pyxonacy, Illyvapcxa <»aKymeT YHHBep3MTeTa y
e・ッイーャLセ
Eeorpll,ll,
M HIII Mn B. (1967): Bezemauuja hepoanckoe noopyuja, 3aIllTHTa rrpnpozte 33, Beorpazi (167-205)
M MIII Mh B., n MHHn A., JOBa HOB Mn B. (1982): Penusmua eezemauuja y npeoeny K03apHuKKnucypa-Ce. Hnuja y jY.JlCHOj Cp6uju, ApXMB. Bnon. nayxa nセ 34(1-4), Beorpan
(10-20)

MI1Illl1n B., nMHl1n A., JOBaHOBl1n B. (1983): Penusmua eezemauuja MpKOfbCKOZ euca y
JY.JlCHOj Cp6uju, Maxen, AKlI,lI,. na nays, HyMeTH., Onen. sa 6110JlOIll. MMe,nHI.\I1HC.
HaYKe, ITpl1n03M IV 1-2, rroc, OTMCaK, CKOnJbe (143-152)
Mmu ah B., nHHHn A., J 0 BaHOBHn B. (1984): Quercetum montanum s./at. «ao «nuuapeeuolIa1lHU mun uiyue jyocue Cp6uje, APXI1B Baon. aayxa nセ 36(1-4), Beorpan (70-80)
M HIII Hn B., n 11 H11 n A., KaJlI1 HHh M. (1985): Ilpunoz n03Ha6a1bY nopexna u eK0/.feHOIlOUlKUX
«apaxmepucmuxa tuyue xpacma «umteaxa u mpaee Poa nemoralis (ass. Poeto-Quercetum montanum Jov.) y Cp6uju, Apx. EHOJlOIll. uayxa 37(1-4), Beorpan (70-80)
M HIII 11 n B., J 0 BaH 0 BMn - nYIh Hn P., ITon OB I1n M., E op Mc a ars e BMn Jb., A HTMn M.,
nl1HMn A., Il a ao u J., EJla)J(eH'IMn )1( (1978): EU/bHe sajeouuue u cmauutuma Cmape nnanune, Iloc, H3,n. CAllY, KIh. DXI, Onen. ITpHp.-MaT. nayxa, KIh. 49,
Eeorpll,ll,
l.J e p IhaBCKMIT., JOBa HOB Mn E. (1950): Lllyucsa cmanuiama u ooeoeapajyha oenopodmopa y
Cp6uju, IToc. H3,n. CAHY, KIh. CLIX, HHCT. sa exon. M6110reorpa<»Mjy, Hay-rna
Klhl1ra, Beorpan (1-48)
Zagorka Tomic
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION QUERCETUM MONTANUM Cer. et Jov. 1953. IN NORTH-EAST SERBIA
Summary

The association Quercetum montanum Cer, et Jov. 1953 ranges in the hilly belt occupying
the warm exposures, ridges and crests on siliceous acid rocks and dystric (sometimes eutric) brown
soils, while the cooler exposures and valleys belong to montane beech and sessile oak-hornbeam
forests. The stands are highly monodominant, with sessile oak (Quercus petraeae agg. (Matt.)
Liebl.) as the only species in the tree layer and with the prevalence of xerophytes and pioneer
species in the other two layers.
The association is divided into four ecological variants - subassociations - taking into account the differences in soils and differential species:
Subass. ornetosum is the most xerothermic, it populates the predominantly humus-siliceous
or shallow, skeletal brown soils, and the differential species are: Fraxinus ornus L. in the tree layer and Lychnis coronaria Desr. and Arabis turrita L. in the ground layer.

205

3aropKa TOMun
Subass. pauperum occurs on skeletal, more acidified dystric brown soils, and it is characterised by floristic pauperity and the facies Poa nemoralis L., Festuca drymeia Mert. Et Kach. and
Luzula luzuloides D. et W. Differential species are Lathyrus niger Bernh. and Musci spp.
Subass. typicum is floristically richer, the soils are developed dystric (sometimes eutric)
brown, less skeletal. It is distinguished by a well-expressed characteristic skupom and the presence
of a greater number of mesophilous species.
Subass. tilietosum is the most mesophilous variant, on deep dystric and eutric soils and with
a greater number of differential species: TWa argentea Desf. (in the tree layer), Acer pseudop/atanus L., Acer platanoides L., Ruscus hipog/ossum L., Mercurialis perennis L., Pulmonaria ofjicinalis L., Epilobium montanum L. and Salvia g/utinosa L.

Tafiena 1. I1TolleHOJIOlliKa Ta6eJIa
Table 1. Phytocoenological table

Acounjauuja
Association
Cyfiacouajanaja
Subassociation
lipoj CUUMaKa
N!
of records
-----------f.;-----Hansropcxa BUCUHa
Altitude
__ _Excnoaana]a
Expl)sll..e__
Harnfi
Slope _
Ilonnora
Parent rock
----_ .._--

QUERCETUM MONTANUA£er. et Jov. 1953.
ornetosum

pauperum

typicum

tilletosum

5

7

17

17

380-480

370-520

360-550

415-590

so-S-sw

so-S-sw

so-S-sw

so-s-sw-w

-

Mセ

-----------_

..

--

-

--

-----_ .._------

20-32°

Fuajc

3eMJhUWTe
Soil

XyMyCUo-

___ セ __ ⦅ セ
- -

___1 c.njJll"l"-To--J

-!" r.

"!ll!--'__⦅GBMャイセ

Fuajc, WKpUJhIuu, aiWI!Ju6oJlU
.l(y60KO
EyTpU'lHO U I eyTpU'lHO U

セu[ゥho

-1

-0_-

0,5-0,7

0,5-0,7

0,4-0,7

0,3-0,9

7-20

8-19

9-22

11-23

10-40

25-37

20-40

18-42

2-6

0,5-6

I

III

-- -------------- - -

lャQ エ Zャァセエ ・ 。イ カa

_
cー・セャ「オ

npe-nnnc

ALセイ。\AゥャuiᄋQ
Cp, pacrojaa,e

aB・⦅イ。ァセAゥェI」iャQヲ

セ[Zヲ。lァᄋmNQMvKャSU

CKeJleTUO
KUCeJlO cMelje セuctZGャhom・iェQ
c

CKJlOn
Structure
Cpena.a BUCUHa

Fua]c,
UJKpUJi>UU_

Tuajc, WKpUJhUU,
MUKaWUCT

_

1-10
yT2-n

--- y 3 " 3 : 5 5
-+---vRNZUセ

+ -- -'-

セ] M ⦅ ]セャᄃ・⦅jQNェ エケOゥeA。 エゥ

Aセ⦅M]

206

__セ]M

_

MセK

MZセ

I

2-8

-V22 C4T セM

-I+T

--------1

D44

⦅]セゥイMd

n

セ}

-1

OpHJlOr rroanaaarsy acouajauaje Quercetum montanum Cer. et Jov. 1953. y ceaeponcrosnoj Cp6lijJ1

Tafiena 1. \ャ^iゥtッセ・hojk。
Ta6eJIa (nacraaax)
Table 1. Phytocoenological table (continue)

Q セ A[ ZェcG



QセZck。

キウ⦅ セ ャ。ェuBQhSッョ」ke{ゥ

Qヲ[ Zヲ セ [Z セ セ 。

.ᄋiLセZオュ

suenna

・イオセZ ゥャ

QセZ[HIゥ。

icセ」

セヲ Z o tan Gij Z
5-250

.]1

Fuajc

1
.

Warent rock

I!Soil

Lo••=..

7

I

370-520

360-550

so-s-sw

so-s-sw

I XYMYCHo-!
CKeJleTHO
ICUJlUKaTHO KUCeJlO cMet;e

0-200

I

Fuajc, WKPUJb..-u,1
MUKaWUCT

I...

. . ===. ''' . .

17

0,2
2-3

セョー。Gヲ

1

415-590. jill

I so-s-sw-w
:.

I

.'..

Hiセ。j・イI

.. .I

]LN」セm・ャゥ ]N

0,2-0,5

0,.-0,8

0,2-0,9

1,5-3

1-3

1,5-4,5

y+:t=n

- . . - VI.2-34-

iIf]

I

0-150

Fuajc,
Ir. H.a.. j.c, w.. KPUJb.-.1
WKpUJb"-U..-u, aMlJJH60Jll·I
)l,y60KO
I
EYTpU'IHO U I eYTpU'IHO U
IlUCTpU'IHO cMet;1 IlUCTpU'IHO

==0···'' •....c.·.·

II

17
1

20-320

!I

113eMJbUWTe

.

! 380-480

·1

'::.mm

iif r:1. 2
iH

iifl'l2

tUl D

iIr

-

I+ r
y+.1:3T·

nr

l :n

-Iif l :+2
··V·'·1:3.3

Iif T 44

-

I+I

iU
... - in

ft"l=+T

I+.r:1.2 .
0,3-1,0

·y+:I:n

0,4-1,0
y+I'3J

\Tn-n-

vKtM セ

V'F2=n
tV 2:T T ··

nt!'3'-iit

Tir

l T2
F 12

ゥiヲセイZSj

iIf 24 4
IIf F H
II+ P J

.irr ·

207

3aropKaTOMHU

QUERCETUM MONTANUlI£er. et Jov. 1953.

ornetosum

Pauperum

typicum

5

7

17

380-480

370-520

360-550

so-s-sw

so-s-sw

so-s-sw

20-32°

0-20°

---w n

2
11+.2:33
11+ 1-+.2
,+2:n

1iJ-F 1C-F2

It"r:12
--i+1:+.2
i-FI:2.2 -

(+'.1:+2

IIiu :n
------11+1:+2

---

------Iyr:I2----oWl

---TV I

It'"
11+ 1

--IU
- ---

208

-IiI

-. --wren

iKセイZiR

-- -

Ilpanor nosnaaan.y aconajauaje Quercetum montanum Cer.et Jov. 1953. y ceaeponcrosnoj Cp6wjw

sッMセi

380-480

370-520

360-550

so-s-sw

so-s-sw

415-590

UMRᄚャイhGセ[ZN

Fuajc
XyMyCHo-

CKeJleTHO

CHJlHKaTHO

KHCeJlO cMelje

, I(T:+1"

if 1 '
II+T

Ir1: U
if T

i+ 1' ,

il+ 1

1+.1-+ Z

t

11'' 1

, Iir l
Ilf P

Z

'I+!' GMセᆳ
, 'i+·1=+Z·

1+.1

in

111"'1:11

1+ 1

l'

It 1-+2

'r

l

1+ 1-+Z

I+:1

Ir Z-4 4 '
t· 1

I+:I

209

3aropKaTOMHll
Tafiena 1. \ャ^htッセ・ojゥk。
Table 1. Phytocoセョャッァゥ」。

I·'"

•...., ..•••.......

セB

セNセ

--

..

セMM⦅

Ta6eJla (HaCTaBaK)
table

AcollHjallHja
Association
CyoacollHjallHj a
Subassociation
.. _.,-.
Bpo] CHUMaKa
IN! of records
イh。セmッー」k。
BHCUHa
Altitude
EKcno3HIlHja
E"!p()sure
Harufi
- -

-

-- -'----

-

- ---"--"

I

QUE'RCETUM MONTANUM:.er. etJov.1953.

... ············-···r

---------

ッイョ・[ウセQi

_

.-

I

Pauperum

typicum

7

17

370-520

360-550

415-590

SO-S-SW

SO-S-SW

SO-S-SW-W

I
,I

e.::sum

+ __t_'.•.l.t.

ii'

---- -

380-480
.-_ . ._ - - - _ .

SO-S-SW

セiッー・

Hoanora
Parent rock

.-. ----,... _-----

- - - --------------

. r.z-; ._

セ。エィyイャウーヲッョゥ」uᄃNqL

... _-

20-32°

0-20°

0-15°

Fuajc

r uajc, WKpHJLIlH,
MHKaWHCT

rHajc,
WKpHJLIlH

Tuajc, WKPHJL_i

-

XyMyCHoCHJlHKaTHO

Coronilla _varia L.
-

I

e··

3eMJLHWTe
Soil
--"---- ---

5-25°



Nセ]j⦅
- --

_

Trifoliummedium Huds.
Rubustomentosus =B-o-r·"k-.·-·-·--I---"UC:l:n
cZイ。エ・ャjNセ

monogyna Jack.
C;a:liuTll_m.!J!ug() L..
AchilleEJrlllle[oliIiTflI.,-"-__ ..
iセゥエィッウー・オAN⦅MᆪZHjBャQL
.. _

セ[Eァt。ィAャヲiゥ」

.

210

c xen eruo
KHCeJlO ・セ mc

E""U"HO U
ohB ptchセ

r' __j⦅セ . lセ」
f'T- ...セ
-ifT·

・セ mc

-

i+ 1
IItt TC24

II+ T
-

1

..l:MI+e.l)l.e··JI!

.....

\+FFr·

-I,-t l -

·
l

'"

--iFf·

tr

uh[ᄋセcZtMp セhZBjャッu

-Ill

. II+T

Nャイj セ ⦅ウゥャ。ョ 」 ヲ ッQオ エャ ゥ t。 HZc

-

-.. 1

..
iKセャ

-. j'fTlJ·

_

--1"1

+._-

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