UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE ALAGOAS INSTITUTO DE COMPUTAÇÃO PROGRAMA DE PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM INFORMÁTICA

  

❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ❆▲❆●❖❆❙

■◆❙❚■❚❯❚❖ ❉❊ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖

P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙ ●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖ ❊▼ ■◆❋❖❘▼➪❚■❈❆

  

❚❍❨❆●❖ ❚❊◆Ó❘■❖ ▼❆❘❚■◆❙ ❉❊ ❖▲■❱❊■❘❆

❯♠ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r P❛r❡s

●❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  

❖♥❧✐♥❡✿ ❯♠ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r

▼❛❝❡✐ó

✷✵✶✺

  

❚❤②❛❣♦ ❚❡♥ór✐♦ ▼❛rt✐♥s ❞❡ ❖❧✐✈❡✐r❛

❯♠ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r P❛r❡s ●❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛

❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❖♥❧✐♥❡✿ ❯♠ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦

  

❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r✲ ❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳

  ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ■❣ ■❜❡rt ❇✐tt❡♥❝♦✉rt ❙❛♥t❛♥❛ P✐♥t♦

  

▼❛❝❡✐ó

✷✵✶✺ Catalogação na fonte Universidade Federal de Alagoas

Biblioteca Central Divisão de Tratamento Técnico

  O48m Oliveira, Thyago Tenório Martins de.

  Um modelo de avaliação por pares gamificado para ambientes educacionais online: um experimento com o meu tutor / Thyago Tenório Martins de Oliveira. – 2015. 190 f. : il. Orientador: Ig Ibert Bittencourt Santana Pinto.

  Dissertação (Mestrado em Informática) – Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Instituto de Computação, Maceió, 2015. Bibliografias: f. 166-172. Apêndices: f. 173-190.

  1. Ambientes online – Modelagem – Educação. 2. Avaliação por pares.

  3. Gamificação – Técnicas. I. Título.

CDU: 004.42:37

  ➚ ❉❡✉s✱ ♣♦✐s s❡♠ ❡❧❡ ❡✉ ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ ❢♦rç❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ ❧♦♥❣❛ ❥♦r♥❛❞❛✳ ➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♠❡ ❞❡r❛♠✱ ❡✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❛ ❡s♣❡r❛♥ç❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳ ➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐r ❡♠ ♠✐♠✳

  ❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❡ t✉❞♦✱ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à ❉❡✉s ♣♦✐s s❡♠ ❡❧❡ ❡stá ❥♦r♥❛❞❛ ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ s✐❞♦ ❝✉♠♣r✐❞❛✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ q✉❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ♠❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✉ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✲

  ♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s q✉❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡st✐✈❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠✐❣♦✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❡ ❞❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ♣♦r t❡r❡♠ ♠❡ ♣r♦♣✐❝✐❛❞♦ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛r ❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡♠ ♠❡✉ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧✳

  ➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛ ❘❡❣✐♥❛ ❙t❡✐♥✱ ♣♦r t♦❞♦ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛çã♦ ❡ ③❡❧♦✱ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❡♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ♠❛✐s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ✐♠❡♥✲ s❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦s s❡✉s ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❊ ❛ s✉❛ ♠ã❡✱ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❛♠✐❣❛ ❈é❧✐❛ ❘❡❣✐♥❛✱ ♣♦r t♦❞❛ ❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ❡♠ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❡✉ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡✐✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ ♣r❡❝✐♦s♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r✳

  ❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r ■❣ ■❜❡rt✱ ❝✉❥♦s ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠✱ sã♦ ❡ s❡rã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡✉ ❢✉t✉r♦ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦ ❡ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❖❜r✐❣❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❛❣✉ç❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✧✐♥q✉✐❡t❛çã♦ ✜❧♦só✜❝❛✧❡ ♣♦r ♠❡ ♠♦str❛r ♦✉tr❛s ♠❛♥❡✐r❛s ❞❡ t❡♥t❛r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡r ❛q✉✐❧♦ q✉❡ ❛♣❛r❡♥t❡✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ♣♦r ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡♠ ♠❡✉ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❡ ♣❡❧♦s ♣✉①õ❡s ❞❡ ♦r❡❧❤❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ♠❡ tr❛③❡♥❞♦ ❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ♣r❡❝✐s♦✳

  ❆♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ t✐✈❡ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠ ❡❧❡s✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♥❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛ ❡ ♣♦r t❛♥t❛ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢✉t✉r❛ ✈✐❞❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✐♥t❡❣r❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ◆❊❊❙✱ ❛♦ q✉❛❧ ♣❡rt❡♥ç♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦✱ ❡ ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✭❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❖❧❛✈♦ ❍♦✲ ❧❛♥❞❛✱ ❊♥❞❤❡ ❊❧✐❛s ❡ ▼❛r❝❡❧♦ ◆✉♥❡s✮✳ P✉❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r ♥♦ss❛s ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛s✱ ❤♦r❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❢♦❝♦ ❡♠ ♥♦ss♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦✱ ❛♣♦✐♦✱ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛s✱ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✱ ❡♥✜♠✱ ♣♦r t✉❞♦ q✉❡ ♣✉❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r✱ ❞❡s❞❡ ❛ ❝♦♥✈✐✈ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛s ❛❧❡❣r✐❛s✱ ❛s ❢r✉str❛çõ❡s ❡ ❛s ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛s✳

  ➱ ♠✉✐t♦ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠♦❞♦✱ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s s❡r❡♥♦s ❡✴♦✉ ❛♣r❡❡♥s✐✈♦s✱ ✜③❡r❛♠ ♦✉ ❢❛③❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✳ P♦r ✐ss♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à t♦❞♦s ❞❡ ❝♦r❛çã♦✳

  ❊P❮●❘❆❋❊

  ◆ã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ✈✐❞❛ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r r✉✐♠✱ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡①✐st❡ ❛❧❣♦ q✉❡ ✈♦❝ê ♣♦❞❡ ❢❛③❡r✱ ❡ tr✐✉♥❢❛r✳ ❊♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❤á ✈✐❞❛✱ ❤á ❡s♣❡r❛♥ç❛✳

  ✭❙t❡♣❤❡♥ ❍❛✇❦✐♥❣✮

  ❘❊❙❯▼❖ ◆♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ✭❚■❈✮ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ s❡ t♦r♥❛❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡✳ ❉✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛ís❡s ❛❞❛♣t❛r❛♠ s✉❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❡ s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛✐s q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✳ ◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ à ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t❡♠ ❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ t♦r♥❛ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ✐rã♦ ❣❡r❛r ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛✲ ❞❡s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ár❞✉❛ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❝r❡s❝❡ ❡①♣♦♥❡♥❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ q✉✐s❡r♠♦s ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❛❜❡rt❛s ✭❡s❝r✐t❛s✮✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ às s✉❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r✐❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ é ✉♠❛ ♦♣çã♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❛ ❡ ♣♦✉❝♦ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣♦r ❡❧❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉✲ ❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛❝❛rr❡t❛♥❞♦ ♥❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ t❡①t✉❛❧✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡rã♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ♠❛♥✉✲ ❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ t♦r♥❛r✐❛ r❛♣✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥✈✐á✈❡❧✳ ❊①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉s❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❞❡ t❛❧ ♠❛✲ ♥❡✐r❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝✉st♦s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦s às ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡st❛s✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛t✉❛♠ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❣❛♥❤❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❧✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❧❡✈❛r ❛ ✉♠ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✐♥❝♦rr❡t♦ ❡ ❡♥❣❛♥♦s♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❣❡r❛ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❣❛❥❛r ♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✧✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r✑ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❡♠♦❝✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✉♥✐r ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ q✉❡ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✱ s❡♠ ♦ ✈✐és ❞❛ ❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦✲ ❝❡ss♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ❡①♣❛♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝❡♥t❡♥❛s ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ s❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛r❛r❛♠ às ❞♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♠❡♥♦s t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜tê✲❧❛s ❡ ❛ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✼✷✪ ♠❡♥♦r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✐♥✢✉❡♥✲ ❝✐♦✉ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛✱ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✶✶✳✼✻✪ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❡ ❡♠ ✻✹✳✷✽✪ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛✉♠❡♥t♦✉ ✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ❝r❡s❝❡✉ ❡♠ ✷✵✪✳

  ❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚ ■♥ r❡❝❡♥t ②❡❛rs✱ t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ✭■❈❚✮ ❛♣♣❧✐❡❞ ✐♥ ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ❤❛s ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣❧② ✉s✉❛❧✳ ❙❡✈❡r❛❧ ❝♦✉♥tr✐❡s ❤❛✈❡ ❛❞❛♣t❡❞ t❤❡✐r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤❡s t♦ ♣r♦♠♦t❡ ❛♥❞ s✉♣♣♦rt t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ✐♥ ❜♦t❤ ❝❧❛ssr♦♦♠ ❝♦✉rs❡s ❛s ✐♥ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❝♦✉rs❡s✳ ■♥ t❤❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t ♦❢ ❉✐st❛♥❝❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✉s❡rs ❤❛s ❣r♦✇♥ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❜❧②✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ♠♦r❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✱ ❣✐✈❡♥ t❤❛t t❤❡s❡ ✇✐❧❧ ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s t♦ ❜❡ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t❡❞✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss ❛ ❝❤♦r❡ t♦ t❡❛❝❤❡r✳ ❚❤✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ❣r♦✇s ❡①♣♦♥❡♥t✐❛❧❧② ✐❢ ✇❡ ✇❛♥t ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ ♦♣❡♥ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥ts ✭✇r✐tt❡♥✮✱ s✐♥❝❡ t❤❡✐r ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❢✉rt❤❡r ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✬s ✇♦r❦✱ ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❢❛❝t t❤❛t ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❜② ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s t②♣❡ ♦❢ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ❛ ❧❛❜♦r✐♦✉s ❛♥❞ ❧❡ss ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡ ♦♣t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐♠♣❧✐❡s t❤❛t ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ❛r❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❜② t❤❡♠ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧❧②✱ r❡s✉❧t✐♥❣ ✐♥ ♦✈❡r✇♦r❦ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧② ❤✐❣❤ ❝♦sts ❢♦r ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❡①t ♣r♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ st✉❞❡♥ts✱ ♠♦r❡ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❡✈❡r② ♥♦✇ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ❜② t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡rs ♠❛♥✉❛❧❧② ✇♦✉❧❞ q✉✐❝❦❧② ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✐♥❢❡❛s✐❜❧❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ✇✐❞❡❧② ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ❝❛❧❧❡❞ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t t❤❛t ❡♥❛❜❧❡s t❤❡ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ✇r✐tt❡♥ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥s ✐♥ s✉❝❤ ❛ ✇❛② t❤❛t ✐t ✐s ♥♦t ♥❡❝❡ss❛r② t♦ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡ ❝♦sts ❧✐♥❦❡❞ t♦ t❤❡s❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s✱ ♦♥❝❡ t❤❡ st✉❞❡♥ts t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❛❝t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss✱ ❣❛✐♥✐♥❣ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❢r❡❡ t♦ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤✐s t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡s ❛ st✉❞❡♥t ❞✐ss❛t✐s❢❛❝t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛♥ ❧❡❛❞ t♦ ✐♥❝♦rr❡❝t ❛♥❞ ♠✐s❧❡❛❞✐♥❣ r❡s✉❧ts✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐♥❞✐❝❛t❡s t❤❛t t❤❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛s♣❡❝t ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡s ✐♥❛♣♣r♦♣r✐❛t❡ ❜❡❤❛✈✐♦✉r ❜② st✉❞❡♥ts✱ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠✐s✐♥❣ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t s②st❡♠✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ✇❡ ♥❡❡❞ ❛ ♠❡❝❤❛♥✐s♠ t♦ ❡♥❣❛❣❡ t❤❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥ts ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧✱ ✉s✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s t❤❛t ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❛❜✐❧✐t② t♦ ✧✐♥✢✉❡♥❝❡✧ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❡♠♦t✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❡ st❛t❡ ♦♥ t❤❡ st✉❞❡♥t✳ ■♥ t❤✐s s❡♥s❡✱ t❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦s❡s ❛♥ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇✐t❤ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ♠♦❞❡❧✱ ✐t ✐s ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ t♦ ✉♥✐t❡ t❤❡ ❛❞✈❛♥t❛❣❡s ♦❢ ❜♦t❤ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✱ r❡❞✉❝✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♦✈❡r✇♦r❦ ♦❢ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✱ s❛✈✐♥❣ t❤❡✐r t✐♠❡ ❛♥❞ ❡✛♦rt t♦ ✇❤❛t ✐s r❡❛❧❧② ♥❡❝❡ss❛r②✱ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧② r❡❞✉❝✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❝♦st ❛ss♦❝✐❛t❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ✇✐t❤♦✉t t❤❡ ❜✐❛s ♦❢ ❞❡✲ ♠♦t✐✈❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ st✉❞❡♥ts ✐♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛❧❧♦✇s t❤❡ ❡①♣❛♥s✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s ❢♦r ❤✉♥❞r❡❞s ♦r ❡✈❡♥ t❤♦✉s❛♥❞s ♦❢ ✉s❡rs✳ ❚❤r♦✉❣❤ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥ts✱ ✇❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉❞❡❞ t❤❛t t❤❡ ❣r❛❞❡s ♦❜t❛✐♥❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇❡r❡ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t t♦ t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ t❡❛❝❤❡rs✱ ✉s✐♥❣ ❧❡ss t✐♠❡ t♦ t♦ ♦❜t❛✐♥ t❤❡♠ ❛♥❞ ❛t ❛ ❝♦st ❛♣♣r♦①✐♠❛t❡❧② ✼✷✪ ❧❡ss✳ ❋✉rt❤❡r♠♦r❡✱ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ❤❛❞ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t ❜② ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ t❤❡ r❡❣✐st❡r ♥✉♠❜❡r ✐♥ ✶✶✳✼✻✪ ❛♥❞ ✻✹✳✷✽✪ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❧♦❣✐♥s✳ ▼♦r❡♦✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ r❡❛❧✐③❡❞ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞ ✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ❝♦rr❡❝t❡❞ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞ ❜② ✷✵✪✳ ❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t✳ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥✳ ❖♥❧✐♥❡ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts✳

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ■▲❯❙❚❘❆➬Õ❊❙

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✵

  

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  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

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  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺

  

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  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸

  

  

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵

  

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  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶

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  ✳ ✳ ✺✾

  

  

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  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹

  

  ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼

  

  

  

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  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✼

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✵

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✵

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✵

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✾

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✹

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✺

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✼

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✵

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✻

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼

  

  ✳ ✶✶✽

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✶

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷

  

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✸

  

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹

  

   ✳ ✶✺✺

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✼

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✾

  

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✽

  

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✾

  

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✵

  

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✼

  

  

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙

  

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✷

  

  ✶✸✸

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✵

  

  ✳ ✶✹✵

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✶

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹

  

  

  ✳ ✶✹✺

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✶

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✻

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✾

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✽

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶

  

  ✳ ✳ ✶✶✸

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✷

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✺

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✽

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✽

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✾

  

  

  

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✵

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❆❇❘❊❱■❆❚❯❘❆❙ ❊ ❙■●▲❆❙ ❆❆❆▲ ❆♥②✇❤❡r❡✱ ❆♥②t✐♠❡✱ ❆♥②♣❡rs♦♥ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✴❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❤♦r❛ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❧✉❣❛r ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❡ss♦❛ ❆❈▼ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡r②✴❆ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❆❱❆ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❈❙❈▲ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r✲s✉♣♣♦rt❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✴❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛ s✉♣♦rt❛❞❛

  ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❉▲ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❧♦❣✐❝✴▲ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❉❚❖ ❉❛t❛ tr❛♥s❢❡r ♦❜❥❡❝t✴❖❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❆❉ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❊◆❊▼ ❊①❛♠❡ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❊❘ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ●◗▼ ●♦❛❧✱ q✉❡st✐♦♥✱ ♠❡tr✐❝✴ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s ■◆❊P ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ▲P❙ ▲✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡ s♦❢✇❛r❡ ▼❖❖❈ ▼❛ss✐✈❡ ♦♣❡♥ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s✴❈✉rs♦s ♠❛ss✐✈♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❡ ❛❜❡rt♦s ❖❲▲ ❲❡❜ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❲❡❜ P❍P ❍②♣❡rt❡①t Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss♦r✴Pré✲Pr♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r t❡①t♦ ❘❉❋✲❙ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❝❤❡♠❛✴❊sq✉❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛r❝❛❜♦✉ç♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦

  ❞❡ r❡❝✉s♦s ❘❉❋ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✴❆r❝❛❜♦✉ç♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉s♦s ❙❖❆P ❙✐♠♣❧❡ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❆❝❝❡ss ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧✴ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s ❙❚■ ❙✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❚■❈ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❲❙❉▲ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴ ▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ ❳▼▲ ❊①t❡♥s✐❜❧❡ ▼❛r❦✉♣ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴ ▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❡①t❡♥sí✈❡❧

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