Um Sistema Evolutivo para a Construção da Taxonomia dos Seres Vivos (SETAX)

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦

❯♠ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛

❚❛①♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞♦s ❙❡r❡s ❱✐✈♦s ✭❙❊❚❆❳✮

  ▲❯■❙ ❍❊◆❘■◗❯❊ ▲❊▼❊ P❆❈❍❊❈❖

  r✐❝❦♣❛❝❤❡❝♦❅❣♠❛✐❧✳❝♦♠ ▼❛❝❡✐ó✱ ✶✽ ❞❡ ▼❛rç♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✶

  

▲❯■❙ ❍❊◆❘■◗❯❊ ▲❊▼❊ P❆❈❍❊❈❖

❯♠ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❚❛①♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞♦s ❙❡r❡s ❱✐✈♦s ✭❙❊❚❆❳✮

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❈✉rs♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦ ❡♠ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s✿

  ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✿ Pr♦❢❛✳ ❉r❛✳ ❘♦❜❡rt❛ ❱✐❧❤❡♥❛ ❱✐❡✐r❛ ▲♦♣❡s ❈♦✲❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦ ❞❡ ❇❛rr♦s ❈♦st❛

  ▼❛❝❡✐ó✱ ✶✽ ❞❡ ▼❛rç♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✶

  

Catalogação na fonte

Universidade Federal de Alagoas

Biblioteca Central

Divisão de Tratamento Técnico

Luis Henrique Leme Pacheco. – 2011.

Um sistema evolutivo para a construção da taxonomia dos seres vivos (SETAX) /

P116u Pacheco, Luis Henrique Leme.

Bibliotecária Responsável: Helena Cristina Pimentel do Vale

60 f. : il. Co-Orientador: Evandro de Barros Costa. Orientadora: Roberta Vilhena Vieira Lopes. Bibliografia: f. 56-60. Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Instituto de Computação. Maceió, 2011. Dissertação (mestrado em Modelagem Computacional de Conhecimento)

  

1. Algoritmos evolucionários. 2. Otimização combinatória

CDU: 004.421

4. Problema do caixeiro viajante. I. Título. – Multiobjetivo.

  

❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

  ❊✉ t❡♥❤♦ ♠✉✐t♦ q✉❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r✱ ❛ ❝♦♠❡ç❛r ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛r ✈✐✈♦✱ ❡ ❞❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❝♦♠♣❛r✲ t✐❧❤❛r ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s s❡r❡s✱ ✐❣✉❛✐s ❛ ♠✐♠✱ q✉❡ ❣♦st❛♠ ❞❡ s❡ ❛♣♦❞❡r❛r❡♠ ❞♦s ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❤❡r❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♥♦ss♦s ❛♥t❡♣❛ss❛❞♦s✳

  ❊❧❡s sã♦ ♠❡✉s ❤❡ró✐s ❡ ♠❡r❡❝❡♠ ♠❡✉s ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ t♦❞♦s ❡❧❡s✱ ❛♦s s❡r❡s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s q✉❡ ✈✐✈❡r❛♠ ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ♠✐♠✱ ♦ ♠❡✉ ♠✉✐t♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦✦ ❆♦s q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❛♠ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐r❡t❛✱ q✉❡r♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ♠✉✐t♦ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛

  ♠ã❡✱ q✉❡ ♥❛s ❤♦r❛s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s✱ ♠❛♥t❡✈❡ ✜r♠❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ✈♦♥t❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡s❝♦❧❛r✐③❛r ♦s ✜❧❤♦s✱ ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ♣❛✐ ❝❛❜❡ ♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥❡st❡ ♣♦♥t♦ ♦❜❡❞❡❝❡r ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♠ã❡ ❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠❡✉ ❝❛r❛t❡r✳

  ❆ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✐r♠ã ❊st❡❧✐t❛ ❡ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥❛♠♦r❛❞❛ ❊❧✐sâ♥❣❡❧❛✱ ❛❧❡♠ ❞❡ ♣❛r❡♥t❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s✱ t♦❞♦s ❡st✐✈❡r❛♠ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❧♦♥❣❛ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛❞❛ ❞❡st❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦✳ ▼❡✉ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦ ❡ ♠❡✉ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦ ❛ t♦❞♦s✳

  ❆♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛r❛♠ ♣♦r ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ♠✉✐t♦s✱ q✉❡r♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r

  ❛

  ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛✱ Pr♦❢ ✳ ❉r✳ ❘♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❡①❝❡❧❡♥t❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❛ ❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✳ ❙❡♠ ❛ s❡♥❤♦r❛ s❡r✐❛ ✐♠♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡ ❛♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❆❣❛♠❡♠♥♦♥ ✱ ♠✉✐t♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦✦✳ ❖s Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❉r✳ ■●✱ ❘❛❢❛❡❧ ❉r✳ P❛r❛❣✉❛ç✉✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❉r✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦✳ ❊①❝❡❧❡♥t❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✳

  ◆❛ ❯❋❆▲ q✉❡r♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛♦ s❡❝r❡t❛r✐♦ ❱✐t♦r✱ q✉❡ ❛❧❡♠ ❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥ár✐♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❝♦♠♣❡t❡♥t❡ é ✉♠ ❛♠✐❣♦ ❡ ❡st❛ s❡♠♣r❡ ♣r♦♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r q✉❛❧q✉❡r s♦❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳

  ◆❛ s❛❧❛✱ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈í✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❞✐❛✱ ❚❛rs✐s ❡ ❈❛r♦❧✱ ♠❡✉s ❡t❡r♥♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s✱ q✉❡ ❡st❡✈❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❝✉rs♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❛❞♠✐r❛çã♦ ❡ ♠❡✉ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦✳

  ◗✉❡r♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❞❡ t✉r♠❛ ❡ ❛♠✐❣♦s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❊❧✈②s✱ ❍✐❣♦r✱ ❏❡❛♥✱ ▼❛r❝♦s✱ ●✉st❛✈♦✱ ❆♥❣❡❧❛✱ ❏❛r❜❛s✱ P❈ ❡ ❋❛❜rí❝✐♦✳ ❋♦✐ ❜♦♠ ❝♦♥✈✐✈❡r ❝♦♠ ✈♦❝ês✱ ▼✉✐t♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦✦

  ❊ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ à ❋❆P❊❆▲✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ✜♥❛♥❝❡✐r♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  

❘❡s✉♠♦

  ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ◆❡st❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ t✐♣♦s ❛❜str❛t♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭●❡♥❡t✐❝ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❇❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❆❜str❛❝t ❉❛t❛ ❚②♣❡s ✲●❆❆❉❚✮ ❢♦✐ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❛ ♠❡♥♦r ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❣r✉♣♦s t❛①♦♥ô♠✐❝♦s ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛✲ ❞♦s✱ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ✈❛❧♦r ♣❛r❛ ♦ s♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞❛s ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ t❛①♦♥ô♠✐❝❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s s✉❜✲ár✈♦r❡s ❜✐♥ár✐❛s q✉❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣õ❡✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ é ❛q✉✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s✱ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✐♥s♣✐r❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧❀ ✉♠ r❡s✉♠♦ ❜✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ár✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✱ ❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❞❡ s❡r❡s ✈✐✈♦s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣✉♥s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s ♠ét♦❞♦s✳

  P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✿ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✱ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥✐❛✱ ➪r✈♦r❡s ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s✱ ❇✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❖t✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❛tór✐❛✱ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❊✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐♦s ❡ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ●❡✲ ♥ét✐❝♦s✳

  

❆❜str❛❝t

  ❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts ❛ s②st❡♠ t❤❛t ✉s❡ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥❛r② ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤ t♦ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡ ❝♦♥✲ str✉❝t✐♦♥ ❝❛❧❧❡❞ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ■♥ t❤✐s s②st❡♠✱ t❤❡ ❣❡♥❡t✐❝ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❛❜str❛❝t t②♣❡s ♦❢ ❞❛t❛ ✭●❡♥❡t✐❝ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❇❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❆❜str❛❝t ❉❛t❛ ❚②♣❡s ✲●❆❆❉❚✮✇❛s ✐♥st❛♥t✐❛t❡❞ t♦ ❢♦✉♥❞ t❤❡ ♠✐♥✐♠✉♠ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ t❛①♦♥♦♠✐❝ ❣r♦✉♣s ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛t❡❞✱ ❣❡♥❡r❛t✐♥❣ ❛ s❡t ♦❢ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ✈❛❧✉❡ ❢♦r t❤❡ s✉♠ ♦❢ t❛①♦♥♦♠✐❝ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ❜✐♥❛r② s✉❜tr❡❡s ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝♦♠♣♦s❡s ✐t✳ ❆❧s♦ r❡♣♦rt ❤❡r❡✱ ❛ st✉❞② ♦❢ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s✱ t❤❡ ♠❛✐♥ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❢♦r ❝♦♥str✉❝t✐♦♥ tr❡❡s ✐♥s♣✐r❡❞ ❜② ♠❡t❤♦❞s ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡❀ ❛ ❜✐♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ s✉✲ ♠♠❛r② ❢♦r t❤❡ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ♦❢ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s ❝♦♥tr✉❝t✐♦♥✱ t❤❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ●❆❆❉❚ t♦ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡ss ♦❢ ❧✐✈✐♥❣ ❜❡✐♥❣s ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s s♦♠❡ r❡s✉❧ts ❛❝q✉✐r❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ s②st❡♠ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♣❛r✐s♦♥ ✇✐t❤ ♦t❤❡r ♠❡t❤♦❞s✳

  ❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡✱ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥②✱ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s✱ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❇✐✲ ♦❧♦❣②✱ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❛t♦r✐❛❧ ❖♣t✐♠✐③❛t✐♦♥✱ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥❛r② ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ❛♥❞ ●❡♥❡t✐❝ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s✳

  ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

  ✶✳✶ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✻❪ s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✶✳✷ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛s ❡♠ ❧❛❜♦r❛tór✐♦✱ ❢♦♥t❡ s✐t❡ ❞❛ ❊♠❜r❛♣❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✶✳✸ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛✲❞❡✲❛çú❝❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✻ ✷✳✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✷ ■♥s❡t♦s ❞❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❤♦❧♦♠❡t❛❜ó❧✐❝♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡sq✉❡♠át✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝❡rt♦s ✈ír✉s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✹ ❙ér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✷✳✺ ❙ér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✻ ➪r✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛s

  ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s t❡r♠✐♥❛✐s✿ ✶ ✭❛✮✱ ✷✭❜✮✱ ✸✭❝✮✱ ✹✭❞✮✱ ✺✭❡✮ ❡ ✻✭❢✮✳ ❆ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ár✈♦r❡s é ♠♦str❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✭❣✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

  ✷✳✼ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ✭❛✮✱ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ✭❜✮ ❡ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ✭❝✮ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✺♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❲❛❣♥❡r ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

  ✷✳✽ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ✭❛✮✱ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ✭❜✮ ❡ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ✭❝✮ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✺♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❛s ♠é❞✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

  ✸✳✶ Ps❡✉❞♦❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✷ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❚❡r♠♦ ❇✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦ ✲❃ ❚❡r♠♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❬✶✹❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✸✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ●❡♥❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✸✳✹ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❈r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✹✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✷ ❚❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✹✳✸ ❚❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡♥✉ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✹ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✺ ❆♠♦str❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ✭❈❛♥❛ ❞❡ ❛çú❝❛r✮ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✻ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭❈❛♥❛ ❞❡

  ❛çú❝❛r✮ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✹✳✼ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣❡♥❡ ♥♦ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✹✳✽ ❋❡❝✉♥❞❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s ❣❡♥❡s ♥♦ ❙❊❚❆❳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✹✳✾ ■♠❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ❙❡rr❛ ❞♦ ❖✉r♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ▼✉r✐❝✐✲❆❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❈❡❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✹✳✶✵ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ r❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ■♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❊①❝❧✉sã♦ ♥❛ ♠❛tr✐③ s❡♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛ ✹✾ ✹✳✶✶ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❲❛❣♥❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✹✳✶✷ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ▼é❞✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✹✳✶✸ ➪r✈♦r❡s ❣❡r❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❋■●❯❘❆❙ ✈

  ✹✳✶✹ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷

  ✹✳✶✺ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❛s ♠é❞✐❛s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✼✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸

  ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

  ✷✳✶ ❈♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠❛tr✐③ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛ ❞❡ sér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐✲ ③❛❞❛s ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻

  ✷✳✷ ❈♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠❛tr✐③ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛ ❞❡ sér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐✲ ③❛❞❛s ✈✐❛ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻

  ✷✳✸ ▼❛tr✐③ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✹ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✺ ▼❛tr✐③ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✻ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐st❛♥❝✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✼ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✻ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ q✉❡

  ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❆ ❡ ❇ t❡♠ ❛ s✉♣❡r✲❡s♣é❝✐❡ ❙✶ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♥❝❡str❛❧ ❞✐r❡t♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✷✳✽ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✼ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ 1 2

  ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s S ❡ ❈ t❡♠ ❛ s✉♣❡r✲❡s♣é❝✐❡ S ❝♦♠♦ ❛♥❝❡str❛❧ ❞✐r❡t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✹✳✶ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ s❡♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛ ✉s❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ t❡st❛r ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✷ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ s❡♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✸ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛ ✉s❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ t❡st❛r ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✹ ▼❛tr✐③ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✺ ❙❝♦r❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✻ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥✢✐t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✼ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥✢✐t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸

  ❙✉♠ár✐♦

  ✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

  ✶✳✶ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶ ✶✳✶✳✶ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✶✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✶✳✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽

  ✷ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✶✵

  ✷✳✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✷ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❋♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✸ ▼❛tr✐③ P♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✹ ▼❛tr✐③ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✺ ▼❛tr✐③ ❙✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✻ ▼❛tr✐③ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✼ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡s ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

  ✷✳✼✳✶ ❆ ❘❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ■♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❊①❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✼✳✷ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❲❛❣♥❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✼✳✸ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❛s ▼é❞✐❛s ✭❯P●▼❆✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

  ✸ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ●❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❚✐♣♦s ❆❜str❛t♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❈♦♥s✲ tr✉çã♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✷✹

  ✸✳✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✸✳✷ ❚✐♣♦s ❇ás✐❝♦s ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✸✳✸ ❖♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✹ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✸✳✺ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✸✳✻ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ♣❛r❛ ♦ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹

  ✸✳✻✳✶ ❚✐♣♦s ❇ás✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✸✳✻✳✷ ❖♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

  ✹ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✭❙❊❚❆❳✮ ✸✾ ✹✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✷ ❋✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ❙❊❚❆❳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✸ ❯♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ r❡❛❧✿ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛ ❞❡

  ❛çú❝❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✹✳✸✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❇❛s❡ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻

  ✹✳✹ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✹✳✺ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❊♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶

  ❙❯▼➪❘■❖ ✈✐✐✐

  ✺ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ✺✹

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶✳✶ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛

  ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ é ✉♠❛ ár❡❛ ❞❛ ❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❡ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐❣❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣ré✈✐♦ ❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦❬✷✵❪✳

  ❆ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♥❛✲ t✉r❡③❛✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❛✉t♦✲♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐✈♦ ❬✶✾❪✱ ❬✷✷❪✳ ❊ss❡s ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt♦s ❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♣♦r ❉❆❘❲■◆ ✭✶✽✺✾✮ ❡♠ s✉❛ t❡♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ❡✈♦❧✉✲ çã♦ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s✳ ◆❡❧❛✱ ❡❧❡ ❛✜r♠❛ q✉❡ ❛ ✈✐❞❛ ♥❛ t❡rr❛ é ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦✱ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ♦✉ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ♠❛✐s ❛♣t♦s ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ♣♦r ❡st❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦ ❡❧❡s tê♠ ♠❛✐s ❝❤❛♥❝❡s ❞❡ r❡♣r♦❞✉③✐r✲s❡✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ ❞✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r❡s ✈✐✈♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❜❛❣❛❣❡♠ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❝♦✲ ♠✉♠✱ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡♥♦s ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ s❡✉s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❜ás✐❝♦s✱ é ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❡❧♦q✉❡♥t❡ ❞❛s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ♥❛t✉r❛❧✳

  ❖✉tr❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✐♥s♣✐r❛❞❛s ♥❛ t❡♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s s✉r✲ ❣✐r❛♠ ❝♦♠♦✿ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❬✷✾❪ ❡ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ❬✹✶❪✳ ◆❛ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✭P●✮✱ ♦s ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❝❛❞❡✐❛s ❞❡ ✏❜✐ts✑✱ ♠❛s s✐♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s s✐♥tát✐❝❛s ♦✉ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s é q✉❡ sã♦ ♦s ❝❛♥❞✐❞❛t♦s à s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♥❛ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❊✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✭❊❊✮ r❡❣r❛s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ é q✉❡ sã♦ ❝❛♥❞✐❞❛t❛s ❛ ✉♠❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✳

  ❆s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s✭❆●✮✱ ❊str❛té❣✐❛s ❊✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✭❊❊✮ ❡ Pr♦❣r❛✲ ♠❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ✭P❊✮ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛❧❣♦ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡❧❛s tr❛t❛ r❡♣r♦❞✉çã♦✱ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛✱ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦ ❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦✳ ❊st❡s q✉❛tr♦ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛ ❡ssê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ❬✹❪✱ ❬✼❪✳

  ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❛ ❤✐stór✐❝❛✱ ❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡ ❜✐ó❧♦❣♦s ❡ ❣❡♥❡t✐❝✐st❛s ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✐♠✉❧❛r ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ✈✐✲

  ✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✷ t❛✐s ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✱ ♦ q✉❡ r❡❝❡❜❡✉ ♥❛ é♣♦❝❛ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡ ✧Pr♦❝❡ss♦s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s✧✭P●✮✬❬✷✹❪✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞❡ss❡s ❝✐❡♥t✐st❛s✱ sã♦✿ ❬✽❪✱ ❬✾❪✱ ❬✷✸❪✱ ▼❛rt✐♥ ❡ ❬✶✸❪✳ ❖ ❜✐ó❧♦❣♦ ❬✸✾❪✱ s✐♠✉❧♦✉ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r❡s ✉♥✐❝❡❧✉❧❛r❡s✱ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❝❧áss✐❝❛ ✭✉♠ ❣❡♥❡✱ ✉♠❛ ❡♥③✐♠❛✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞✐♣❧ó✐❞❡✱ ❝♦♠ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ❞❡ ✷✵ ❣❡♥❡s ❡ ✶✻ ❛❧❡❧♦s ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠✳

  ◆❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✻✵✱ ❬✷✼❪ ❡ ♦✉tr♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❝♦♠❡ç❛r❛♠ ❛ ❡st✉❞❛r ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❛❞❛♣✲ t❛t✐✈♦s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛✳ ❊ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s ✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛✈❛♠ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❣❡♥ót✐♣♦✱ ❢♦r♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ✭q✉❡ ♥❡st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡r❛♠ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❝❛❞❡✐❛s ❞❡ ✏❜✐ts✑✮ ❛♦s q✉❛✐s s❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛✈❛♠ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦✱ r❡❝♦♠✲ ❜✐♥❛çã♦✱ ♠✉t❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ✐♥✈❡rsã♦✱ ❡st❡ ú❧t✐♠♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r ♥ã♦ ❝❤❡❣♦✉ ❛ s❡r ❧❛r❣❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❬✹✹❪✳

  ❯♠❛ ❞❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s✭❝✉❥♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ t❡r♠♦ ❝❛❜❡ ❛ ❇❛❣❧❡② ♥❛ s✉❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✶✾✻✼✮✱ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❞❡ ❍♦❧❧❛♥❞❬✷✼❪✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦r❡s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❡ ✉s❛♠ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧✳

  ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ s❡❣✉❡ ❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✳✶ ❞❡ ❬✻❪ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ r❡s✉♠♦ ❞❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡✲ r✐③❛♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s ❛q✉✐ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✿ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✻❪ s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✳

  ❖s ❆● ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❧❛r❣❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ♠✉✐t❛s ár❡❛s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s✱ ❞❡♥tr❡ ❛s q✉❛✐s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡st❛❝❛❞❛s✿ ❙í♥t❡s❡ ❞❡ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ❛♥❛❧ó❣✐❝♦s✿ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❝❡rt❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ✉♠❛ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛✱

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