Leonardo Salas Maldonado.pdf

  

❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❉❖ ❊❙❚❆❉❖ ❉❊ ❙❆◆❚❆ ❈❆❚❆❘■◆❆

❈❊◆❚❘❖ ❉❊ ❈■✃◆❈■❆❙ ❚❊❈◆❖▲Ó●■❈❆❙

❉❊P❆❘❚❆▼❊◆❚❖ ❉❊ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆ ❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙✲●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖ ❊▼ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆

  

❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

  ▲❊❖◆❆❘❉❖ ❏❖❙➱ ❆▼❆❉❖❘ ❙❆▲❆❙ ▼❆▲❉❖◆❆❉❖ ❈❆❘❆❈❚❊❘■❩❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ▼❆❚❊❘■❆■❙ ▼❆●◆➱❚■❈❖❙ ❆

  ❇❆■❳❖ ❈❯❙❚❖ ❆P▲■❈❆❉❆ ➚ ❖❇❚❊◆➬➹❖ ❉❖❙ P❆❘➶▼❊❚❘❖❙ ❉❊ ❯▼ ❉■❙P❖❙■❚■❱❖

  ❊▲❊❚❘❖▼❆●◆➱❚■❈❖ ❏❖■◆❱■▲▲❊

  ✷✵✶✺

  

❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❉❖ ❊❙❚❆❉❖ ❉❊ ❙❆◆❚❆ ❈❆❚❆❘■◆❆

❈❊◆❚❘❖ ❉❊ ❈■✃◆❈■❆❙ ❚❊❈◆❖▲Ó●■❈❆❙

❉❊P❆❘❚❆▼❊◆❚❖ ❉❊ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆ ❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙✲●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖ ❊▼ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆

  

❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

  ▲❊❖◆❆❘❉❖ ❏❖❙➱ ❆▼❆❉❖❘ ❙❆▲❆❙ ▼❆▲❉❖◆❆❉❖ ❈❆❘❆❈❚❊❘■❩❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ▼❆❚❊❘■❆■❙ ▼❆●◆➱❚■❈❖❙ ❆

  ❇❆■❳❖ ❈❯❙❚❖ ❆P▲■❈❆❉❆ ➚ ❖❇❚❊◆➬➹❖ ❉❖❙ P❆❘➶▼❊❚❘❖❙ ❉❊ ❯▼ ❉■❙P❖❙■❚■❱❖

  ❊▲❊❚❘❖▼❆●◆➱❚■❈❖

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛ ❛♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧é✲ tr✐❝❛ ❞♦ ❈❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❚❡❝♥♦❧ó✲ ❣✐❝❛s ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❊st❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❙❛♥t❛ ❈❛t❛r✐♥❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧é✲ tr✐❝❛✳ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❆♥tô♥✐♦ ❋✳ ▲✳ ◆♦❣✉❡✐r❛ ❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❆❞❛❧❜❡rt♦ ❞❡ ❆✳ ❇✳ ❋✐❧❤♦

  ❏❖■◆❱■▲▲❊

  ✧❈❆❘❆❈❚❊❘■❩❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ▼❆❚❊❘■❆■❙ ▼❆●◆➱❚■❈❖❙ ❆ ❇❆■❳❖ ❈❯❙❚❖ ❆P▲■❈❆❉❆ ➚ ❖❇❚❊◆➬➹❖ ❉❖❙

  P❆❘➶▼❊❚❘❖❙ ❉❊ ❯▼ ❉■❙P❖❙■❚■❱❖ ❊▲❊❚❘❖▼❆●◆➱❚■❈❖✧

  ♣♦r ▲❡♦♥❛r❞♦ ❏♦sé ❆♠❛❞♦r ❙❛❧❛s ▼❛❧❞♦♥❛❞♦

  ❊st❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ❥✉❧❣❛❞❛ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ tít✉❧♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛

  ❡ ❛♣r♦✈❛❞♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ✜♥❛❧ ♣❡❧♦ P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙✲●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖ ❊▼ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆

  ❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆ ❉❖ ❈❊◆❚❘❖ ❉❊ ❈■✃◆❈■❆❙ ❚❊❈◆❖▲Ó●■❈❆❙ ❉❆

  ❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❉❖ ❊❙❚❆❉❖ ❉❊ ❙❆◆❚❆ ❈❆❚❆❘❚■◆❆ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❆♥tô♥✐♦ ❋✳ ▲✳ ◆♦❣✉❡✐r❛

  ❈❈❚✴❯❉❊❙❈ ✭❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✴♣r❡s✐❞❡♥t❡✮ ❇❛♥❝❛ ❊①❛♠✐♥❛❞♦r❛✿

  Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❆❞❡♠✐r ◆✐❡❞ ❈❈❚✴❯❉❊❙❈

  ❏♦✐♥✈✐❧❧❡✱ ✷✼ ❞❡ ❢❡✈❡r❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✺✳

  Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▼❛✉r✐❝✐♦ ❱✳ ❋✳ ❞❛ ▲✉③✳ ❯❋❙❈

  

➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❡s♣♦s❛✱ ❙tt❡❧❛ ▼❛r✐s✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦

❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ✜❧❤♦s✱ ❆❧❡ss❛♥❞r❛✱ ❋❡r♥❛♥❞♦ ❡

▲❡♦♥❛r❞♦ ❱✐♥✐❝✐✉s✱ ♣♦r ❛❧❡❣r❛r❡♠ ❛ ♠✐✲

♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✳

➚s ♠✐♥❤❛s ❢❛♠í❧✐❛s✱ ❝❤✐❧❡♥❛ ❡ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s s❛✉❞♦s♦s ♣❛✐s✱ ▲✐❧✐❛♥❛ ❡ ❊✈❛✲

r✐st♦✳

  ❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙ ❆ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❣r❛ç❛s à ❝♦♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡

  ✈ár✐❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛r❛♠ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❣r❡ss♦ ❞❡st❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐✲ çã♦ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛✳ ●♦st❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛ t♦❞♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✿

  ✕ à ♠✐♥❤❛ ❡s♣♦s❛✱ ❙tt❡❧❛ ▼❛r✐s✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ♥❛ ❡s❝r✐t❛ ❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♦rt♦❣rá✜❝❛ ❡ ♣♦r s❡✉ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦❀

  ✕ ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ ♦ ❞♦✉t♦r ❆♥tô♥✐♦ ❋❧❛✈✐♦ ▲✐❝❛r✐ã♦ ◆♦❣✉❡✐r❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ ❞✐❞át✐❝♦✱ ♣r✐♠♦r❞✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❖❜r✐❣❛❞♦ ♣♦r s✉❛ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦❀

  ✕ ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ❝♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ ♦ ♠❡str❡ ❆❞❛❧❜❡rt♦ ❞❡ ❆r❛ú❥♦ ❇❛rr❡t♦ ❋✐❧❤♦✱ ♣♦r s✉❛s ✈❛❧✐♦s❛s s✉❣❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝♦❀

  ✕ ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ❡①✲❛❧✉♥♦✱ ●❛❜r✐❡❧ ❍❡r♠❛♥♥ ◆❡❣r✐✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝ó❞✐❣♦s ❡♠ ▲✉❛❀

  ✕ ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ❡①✲❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❆rt❤✉r ●❛r❝✐❛ ❇❛rts❝❤✱ ♣❡❧❛ ❞✐❣✐t❛çã♦ ❡ s✉✲ ❣❡stõ❡s✳

  

❆ ▲❡❜r❡ ❡ ❛ ❚❛rt❛r✉❣❛ ♠♦str❛ ❛ ✐♠✲

♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ♣❡rs❡✈❡r❛♥ç❛✱ ✉♠❛ ❤✐stór✐❛

❝♦♥t❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❊s♦♣♦✱ ❢❛❜✉❧✐st❛ ❣r❡❣♦ ❞♦ sé✲

❝✉❧♦ ❱■■ ❆❈✱ ♦✉ ❝♦♠♦ ❡r❛♠ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s✿

✧P❡❞❛✲❣♦❣♦s✧✱ ❡s❝r❛✈♦ ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s✳ ❖ ❡♥✲

s✐♥♦ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❣r❡❣♦s✱ ❝♦♠❡✲

ç❛✈❛ ♣♦r ♣r✐♥❝í♣✐♦s ♠♦r❛✐s ❡ ét✐❝♦s✳

✧❙ó s❡✐ q✉❡ ♥❛❞❛ s❡✐✧✳ ❙ó❝r❛t❡s✳ ◆♦

✐♥í❝✐♦✱ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛✲s❡ ❡♠ ✐❞❡✐❛s ❡ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s✱

❝♦♠ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ s❡ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡ ♦ q✉ã♦ ❡rr❛❞♦

♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡st❛r✳

❊st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✈❛✐ ❛♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠✉✐✲

t❛s ❞ú✈✐❞❛s ❡ ♦ r❡❛✈❡r ❞❡ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞✐t♦s

✏❜ás✐❝♦s✧✱ ♠❛s q✉❡ t❡r♠✐♥❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦

♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛✳

❋r❡♥t❡ ❛ ✐ss♦✱ só r❡st❛ ❛ ♣❡rs❡✈❡r❛♥ç❛ ❞❛

❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡s♣♦st❛✱ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❤❛✲

♠❛♠ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♦✉tr♦s ❞❡ t❡♦r✐❛✳

  ❘❊❙❯▼❖ ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ sí♥t❡s❡ ❞♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛rt❡ s♦❜r❡ ❛s ❝❛✲ r❛❝t❡r✐③❛çõ❡s ❡ ♣❡r❞❛s ♥♦ ❢❡rr♦ s♦❜ ♦ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❞❛ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛❀ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡✲s❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡r ❡ ❣❡r❛r s✉❜sí❞✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❛✲ t❡r✐❛✐s ❢❡rr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦s ❛ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✱ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡✲ tr♦s ❡❧❡tr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦s ❡ ❞❡ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❡❧❡tr♦✲ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❢❡♥ô♠❡♥♦s ❡❧❡tr♦♠❛❣✲ ♥ét✐❝♦s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♥❞♦ ♥❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❡❧étr✐❝❛s✳ P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✿ ❈♦♥t❛❝t♦r❡s❀ ■♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛❀ ▼ét♦❞♦ ❞♦s ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❋✐✲ ♥✐t♦s❀ P❡r❞❛s ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛s❀ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❙✐♠✉❧❛çã♦❀ ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r❡s

  ❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚ ❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts ❛ st❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❛rt s②♥t❤❡s✐s ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ❝❤❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛✲ t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❧♦ss❡s ✐♥ ✐r♦♥ ✉♥❞❡r t❤❡ ❢♦❝✉s ♦❢ ❊❧❡❝tr✐❝❛❧ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣❀ ✐t ✐s ✐♥t❡♥❞❡❞ t♦ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ ❛♥❞ t♦ ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡ ❛✐❞s t♦ ❢❡rr♦♠❛❣♥❡t✐❝ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧s ❝❤❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛t✐♦♥ ❛t ❧♦✇ ❝♦st✱ ❛♣♣❧✐❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❡❧❡❝tr♦♠❛❣✲ ♥❡t✐❝ ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡rs ❛♥❞ ❡♥❡r❣❡t✐❝❛❧ ❡✣❝✐❡♥❝② ♦❢ ❡❧❡❝tr♦♠❛❣♥❡t✐❝ ❞❡✈✐❝❡s✱ ✉s✐♥❣ ❛ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❡ ✈✐❡✇ ♦❢ ❝♦♠♣❧❡① ❡❧❡❝tr♦♠❛❣♥❡t✐❝ ♣❤❡♥♦♠❡♥❛✱ ❤❡❧✲ ♣✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❤❡♥s✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ st✉❞② ♦❢ t❤❡ ❡❧❡❝tr✐❝❛❧ ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡s ♣r♦❥❡❝t✳ ❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❈♦♥t❛❝t♦rs❀ ■♥❞✉❝t❛♥❝❡❀ ❋✐♥✐t❡ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t ▼❡t❤♦❞❀ ▼❛❣♥❡✲ t✐❝ ▲♦ss❡s❀ ❙✐♠✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡❀ ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❡rs

  ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❋■●❯❘❆❙ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶ ▲❛ç♦s ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡✱ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ q✉❛s❡✲❡stát✐❝❛✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✷ ■♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❛♠♣♦ H ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❧❛♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡s✲ s✉r❛ d✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✸ ▲❛ç♦s ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡✱ f = 50 Hz✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✹ ▲❛ç♦s ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡✱ f = 250 Hz✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✺ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦✱ ❧✐♥❡❛r✐③❛❞❛ ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡s✳ ✹✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶ ▼❛❧❤❛s ❢♦r♠❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s tr✐❛♥❣✉❧❛r❡s ❞❡ ♣r✐✲

  ♠❡✐r❛ ♦r❞❡♠❀ ✭❛✮ ♠❛❧❤❛ ✐♥❝♦rr❡t❛❀ ✭❜✮ ♠❛❧❤❛ ❝♦rr❡t❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ i (x, y) ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷ ❋✉♥çõ❡s ♣❧❛♥❛r❡s α ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸ ❋✉♥çõ❡s ♣❧❛♥❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹ ❖s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ✶✱ ✷✱ ✸ ❡ ✹ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠ ♦ ♥ó ✏❛✑✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶ ●rã♦ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦ ✭●❖✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷ ●rã♦ ♥ã♦✲♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦ ✭●◆❖✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸ ❖ ❞✐♣♦❧♦ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦ t❡♠ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥❣✉❧❛r

  ❞♦s ❡❧étr♦♥s ♥♦s í♦♥s ♦✉ át♦♠♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛ ♠❛tér✐❛✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹ ❆tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ▲✐♥✉s P❛✉❧✐♥❣✱ ♦❜té♠✲s❡ ❛ ❞✐s✲ tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❡❧étr♦♥s ♥♦s ♦r❜✐t❛✐s✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❢❡rr♦ sã♦ ✹ ♠♦♠❡♥✲ t♦s ❛♥❣✉❧❛r❡s ❞❡ s♣✐♥ ♥ã♦ ♥✉❧♦s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ✹ ♠❛❣♥ét♦♥s ❞❡ ❇♦❤r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺ ❖ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s ❡stá ♥❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ♠✐❝r♦♠étr✐❝❛ ❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ ♣♦❧✐❝r✐st❛❧✐♥♦✱ ❝❛❞❛ ❣rã♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡r ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻ ■❧✉str❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♣❛r❡❞❡ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦ q✉❡ s❡♣❛r❛ ❞♦✐s ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s ❝✉❥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❛tô♠✐❝♦s ♠✉❞❛♠ ❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✶✽✵ ✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✼ ▼❡t❛❧♦❣r❛✜❛ ❞♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ❞♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r ❢❛❜r✐❝❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❈❤✐♥❛ ❛ç♦ ✶✵✶✵✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✽ ❆ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦s é r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ♠✐✲ ♥✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✸

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✾ ▼❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ♥ã♦✲❧✐♥❡❛r ❞♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✵ ❈✉r✈❛ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛ ❞❛ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧

  ❢❡rr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦ ✭♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✮ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❛ ♣♦♥t♦ M = Hµ r

  ❞♦ ❣rá✜❝♦ ♣❡r♠❡❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✈❡rs✉s ✐♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❛♠♣♦✳ ✼✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✶ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ ❢❡rr♦✲

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✷ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ s♦❜ ♦ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❞♦ ❜❛❧❛♥ç♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✸ ▲â♠✐♥❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ ❢❡rr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✹ ❋♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❡st✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ P❲▼ ❡ ❞❛ ❝♦r✲ r❡♥t❡ q✉❡ é ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛❧ à ✐♥❞✉çã♦✳ ❆ sér✐❡ ❞❡ ❋♦✉r✐❡r ♣❡r♠✐t❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❢✉♥çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s♦♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛s s❡♥♦✐❞❛✐s ❝♦♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♠♣❧✐t✉❞❡s ❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✺ ❆ té❝♥✐❝❛ P❲▼ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠❛ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞✐st♦r❝✐❞❛ q✉❡ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛ ❛ s❡♥♦✐❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛✱ ♣♦r ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ RL ❞♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛ ❡①♣♦♥❡♥❝✐❛✐s ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡s ❡ ❞❡❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❞ã♦ ♦ ❝❛rát❡r ✧r❡❝♦rt❛❞♦✧❛♦ s✐♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✹

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✻ ❋♦r♠❛ ❞❛ ❝✉r✈❛ BH ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ P❲▼ ❛s ♦♥❞❛s r❡❝♦rt❛❞❛s✱ ❛❢❡t❛♠ só ♦ ❝♦♥t♦r♥♦ ❞❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡✱ s❡✉ ❡❢❡✐t♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛s ♣❡r❞❛s t♦t❛✐s é ♠í♥✐♠♦✱ ♥✉♠ ✐♥✈❡rs♦r P❲▼ ❛s ♣❡r❞❛s ✜❝❛♠ ♣♦r ❝♦♥t❛ ❞♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✼ ❖s ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s ❜ás✐❝♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❞✐st♦rçã♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❞✉✲ çã♦ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❧❛ç♦s ♠❡♥♦r❡s ♥❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛✿ ✭❛✮ s❡♠ ❡①tr❡♠♦s ❧♦❝❛✐s ❡ ✭❜✮ q✉❛tr♦ ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❡①tr❡✲ ♠❛s ♥♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✽ ❆s s✉s❝❡♣t✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛✐s sã♦ ❛s ✐♥❝❧✐♥❛çõ❡s ❞❛s r❡t❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✳ ❖ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ P❡✉❣❡t ✭P❊❯●❊❚✱ ✶✾✾✺✮ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ♠❡t❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❧❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ♥♦✈❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✼

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✾ P♦♥t♦s ❝❤❛✈❡s s✉❣❡r✐❞♦s ♣♦r ❏✐❧❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ♥♦✈❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭M s ✱ M m ✱ H m ✱ χ m ✱ M r ✱ χ r ✱ H c ✱ χ c ✱ ❍❝✱ χ in ✮ ♥❡❝❡ssá✲ r✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❏❆ ❡stã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ tr❛ç❛❞❛ ❛ ✶ ❍③✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✽

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✵ ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❋❊▼▼✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✶ ❆♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❉❲✷✵✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✷ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ❞❡ ❊♣st❡✐♥ ✲ ❢♦t♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✸ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ❞❡ ❊♣st❡✐♥ ✲ ✐❧✉str❛çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✹ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❡sq✉❡♠át✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ♣❡r❞❛s

  ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛s ❡ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝✉r✈❛ BH✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✺ ❊sq✉❡♠❛ ❞♦ s❡♥s♦r ❙❙❚✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✽ ▲❛♠✐♥❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✾ ▼❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s í♥❞✐❝❡s ❞❡ ▼✐❧❧❡r ❞❡ ✉♠❛

  ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❈❈❈ ✭❈ú❜✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❈♦r♣♦ ❈❡♥tr❛❞♦✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✵ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✶ ❋♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞♦s ❝❛♠♣♦s H(t) ❡ B(t)✱ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ❛♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛ ❡ t❡♥sã♦ s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐❛✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✷ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ ❞♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐✲

  ③❛♥❞♦ ♦s❝✐❧♦s❝ó♣✐♦ ❞✐❣✐t❛❧ ❝♦♠ ❛♠♦str❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✺✵✵ ♣♦♥t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✾ m = 0, 1686 m ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✸ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❛❞♦t❛❞♦ l ✳✶✵✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✹ ❖ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ é ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ r❡s✐stê♥❝✐❛ à ♠♦✈✐✲

  ♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✺ ❋♦r♠❛t♦ ❞♦ ❧❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡

  ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✻ ❖❜t❡♥çã♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❛ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ BH

  ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✼ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳ ✶✵✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✽ ❈✉r✈❛ BH ❞❡ ❛ç♦ ❝❛r❜♦♥♦ ✶✵✶✵✳ ◆❡ss❛ ♥♦♠❡♥❝❧❛t✉r❛✱

  ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ✶✵✵✵ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ❛ç♦s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝❛r❜♦♥♦✱ ❡♥✲ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ✶✵ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ t❡♦r ❞❡ ✵✱✶✪ ❞❡ ❝❛r❜♦♥♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✾ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à ✐♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡

  ❝❛♠♣♦✱ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✵ P❡r♠❡❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛ r❡❧❛t✐✈❛ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡♥✲ s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❛♠♣♦✳ ❚❡♦r✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡st❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡✈❡r✐❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ③❡r♦✳✶✵✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✶ P❡r♠❡❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛ r❡❧❛t✐✈❛ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦r✲ r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❡①❝✐t❛çã♦ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✷ ❆ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❛ ✐♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛ é ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦

  ❛s ♦r❞❡♥❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣❡r♠❡❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✈❡rs✉s ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦r K L1 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✸ ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ✜♥✐t♦s✱ ❛ ✐♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ❢♦✐ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✺✵ ❬♠❆❪✳ ▼❛s✱ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ❡rr♦ ♥❡ss❡ ✈❛❧♦r ♣♦rq✉❡ ❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛③✐♦ é ❛ s♦♠❛ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✹✼ ❬♠❆❪ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡✱ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛ ❛s ♣❡r❞❛s ❞♦ ❢❡rr♦✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ r❡s✐st♦r ❡q✉✐✲ n = 12665 [Ω] ✈❛❧❡♥t❡ R ✱ ❝✉❥♦ ✈❛❧♦r é ✶✼ ❬♠❆❪✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ r❡❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❛s ❝♦♥t❛s ❝♦♠ ✹✼ ❬♠❆❪✱ s❡ ♦❜té♠ ❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡ss❛ ♠✉✐t♦

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✹ ■♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐❛✱ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❢❛t♦r ❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ K L2 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✺ ■♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ♠út✉❛ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦ s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐♦ ♣♦r ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ❝♦r✲ r❡♥t❡ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✻ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❛ r❡❧✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛✳ ✳ ✶✶✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✼ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❛ ♣❡r♠❡â♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♣r✐♠ár✐♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦

  ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♠❛❣♥❡t✐③❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❡♥r♦❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣r✐♠ár✐♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✽ ❉✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r r❡❛❧✳✳ ✳ ✶✶✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✾ ■♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛ ❞❡ ✽✱✷✽ ❬❍❪ ♥♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦✳ ✶✷✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✵ ■♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ s❡❝✉♥❞❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ✵✱✵✾✺ ❬❍❪ ♥♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛✲

  çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✶ ❈✉r✈❛ ✐♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ♠út✉❛ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♣r✐♠❛✲ r✐❛ ♥❛ ❝♦♥❞✐çã♦ s❡♠ ❝❛r❣❛ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥❞✉tâ♥❝✐❛ ❣r❛✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡

  ❡stá ❡♠ t♦r♥♦ ❞❡ ✵✱✾✵✸ ❬❍❪ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♣r✐♠❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ✶✵✵ ❬♠❆❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✷

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ✐❞❡❛❧ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r ♠♦♥♦❢ás✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✸ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛s ♠út✉❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✹ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛s ♠út✉❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✺ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ sér✐❡ ❞♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❋❊▼▼✳✳ ✶✷✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✻ ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ sér✐❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✼ ❋♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❡①❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✈❛③✐♦ ♣❛r❛

  ✉♠❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✶✵✵♠❆✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ❛ t❡♥sã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ❡st❡ ✈❛❧♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✵

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✽ ❋♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ ❡♥s❛✐♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rt♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✵

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✾ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t❛❧ ❞♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✵ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t❛❧ ❞♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r r❡✢❡t✐❞♦ ❛♦ ♣r✐♠ár✐♦✳✶✸✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✶ ❋♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ ❡♥s❛✐♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rt♦

  ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ sér✐❡ ❞♦ ❡♥s❛✐♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rt♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♥♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛✲

  ❞♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✸ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ❝✐❝❧♦s ❞❡ ♣❡r❞❛s

  ❞♦ ❢❡rr♦✿ ✭❛✮ ♣❡r❞❛s ♣♦r ❤✐st❡r❡s❡❀ ✭❜✮ ♣❡r❞❛s ♣♦r ❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❋♦❝❛✉❧t❀ ✭❝✮ ♣❡r❞❛s ❡①❝❡❞❡♥t❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✼

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✹ ❉❡r✐✈❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝✉r✈❛ BH s❡ ♦❜té♠ ❛ ❝✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ♣❡r♠❡✲

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✺ ❈✉r✈❛ ❞❡ ❤✐st❡r❡s❡ tr❛ç❛❞❛ ❛ ✶✵ ❍③ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✻ ❙❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ♣❡r❞❛s ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ■♥❞✉çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✼ ❖♣❡r❛çã♦ ❡♠ r❡❣✐♠❡ q✉❛s❡ ❡stát✐❝♦✿ ❛s ♣❡r❞❛s ❞❡ ❤✐s✲ t❡r❡s❡ sã♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ♣ró①✐♠❛s ❞❛s ♣❡r❞❛s t♦t❛✐s✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✽ ❙❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♣❡r❞❛s ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✾ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ♥ã♦✲❧✐♥❡❛r ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ tr❛♥s❢♦r✲

  ♠❛❞♦r ❝♦♠ s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐♦ ❡♠ ✈❛③✐♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✼✵ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡♥❧❛❝❡ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❧♦❣♦ ❛♣ós ❛ ❡♥❡r✲

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